Published on March 31, 2010
MYPRESENTATION ONHEART ATTACK : MYPRESENTATION ONHEART ATTACK BY RAJA SREEKAR M.Sc Microbiology.gen What is HEART ATTACK? : What is HEART ATTACK? Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack. It is the interruption of blood supply to part of the heart, causing some heart cells to die. This is most commonly due to occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery following the rupture of atherosclerotic plaque, which is an unstable collection of lipids and W.B.C in the wall of an artery. This results in restriction of blood supply and oxygen which can cause damage or death (infarction) of heart muscle tissue (myocardium). STRUCTURE : STRUCTURE FUNCTION video : FUNCTION video Coronary artery : Coronary artery The vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood to the myocardium are known as coronary arteries. These relatively narrow vessels are commonly affected by atherosclerosis and can become blocked, causing angina or a heart attack. When the coronary arteries narrow to the point that blood flow to the heart muscle is limited (coronary artery disease), collateral vessels may enlarge and become active. FATE OF R.B.C IN CORONARY ARTERY : FATE OF R.B.C IN CORONARY ARTERY Mammalian erythrocytes are typically shaped as biconcave disks: flattened and depressed in the center, with a dumbbell-shaped cross section, and a torus-shaped rim on the edge of the disk. This distinctive biconcave shape optimizes the ﬂow properties of blood in the vessels. RBC's have a specialized cytoskeleton in order to maintain their shape. Phosphotidyl-choline n serine forms a complex with cyto-proteins. Slide 7: This composes of an actin/spectrin network held together by another protein call ankyrin. When R.B.Cs moves in capillaries the deformation of membrane increases and gives umbrella like shape, which can reduce the friction in blood. ATHEROSCLEROSIS : ATHEROSCLEROSIS Atherosclerosis (also known as Arteriosclerotic Vascular Disease or ASVD) is the condition in which an artery wall thickens as the result of a build-up of fatty materials such as cholesterol. The increase in LDL- cholesterol in artery walls initiates macrophages to move inside wall of artery, thus forming fatty streaks. These huge fatty deposits narrows the diameter of coronary artery causing blockage of blood. MECHANISM video : MECHANISM video Are Other organs Affected? : Are Other organs Affected? Ischemic Stroke Peripheral Vascular Disease Coronary Heart Disease Angina MI (Heart Attack) Sudden Cardiac Death What Increases Risk? : What Increases Risk? You can’t help it ! Age: Men > 45; Women > 55 Sex Race Family History You can !! High Cholesterol Smoking High Blood Pressure Diabetes Obesity Alcohol Physical Inactivity B.P : B.P Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure exerted by circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels. When BP increases the excess pressure causes rupture of artery surface layer. This gives a chance to bad cholesterol to enter inside the artery wall which further causes atherosclerosis. The high B.P causes wear and tear on the arterial wall can increase the likelihood of lipid and calcium deposits adhering to the arterial wall. This leads to hardening of the arteries Stress and tension can also fluctuate B.P CHOLESTEROL IS OUR FRIEND OR ENEMY : CHOLESTEROL IS OUR FRIEND OR ENEMY LDL is known as bad cholesterol. It has a tendency to increase risk of CHD. LDL’s are a major component of the atherosclerotic plaque that clogs arteries. Levels should be <130mg\dl HDL is known as the good cholesterol. It helps carry some of the bad cholesterol out of the body. It does not have the tendency to clog arteries. Levels should be >35 mg\dl OBESITY : OBESITY People who are overweight (10-30 % more than their normal body weight) Obese have 2 to 6 times the risk of developing heart disease Normal Waist-Hip Ratio < 0.85 for women; < 0.95 for men NICOTINE Vs CHANTIX : NICOTINE Vs CHANTIX When a person smoked cigarette the nicotine reaches the brain with in 8 sec. Their it binds to nicotine-acetylcholine receptors of nerve cell. This gives signal for the release of dopamine in high levels, and also initiates pituitary gland to produce more amount of acetylcholine ,epinephrine n nor epinephrine serotonin in blood. These vasodilators increases B.P which leads to angina and heart attack in prolong process Slide 16: Chantix is a drug which counteracts the action of nicotine, but gives the smoking feeling.. Varenicline (chantix) competitively binds to α4β2 receptors blocking the ability of nicotine to stimulate the central nervous mesolimbic dopamine system. Using of chantix is highly risky as it shows major side effect( urge to commit suicide). ACTION OF NICOTINE video : ACTION OF NICOTINE video DIABETES : DIABETES Having diabetes or pre-diabetes puts you at increased risk for heart disease and stroke High blood glucose levels over time can lead to increased deposits of fatty materials on the insides of the blood vessel walls. Low glucose levels in blood leads to production of ketone bodies as energy souce. The ketone bodies, however, have a low pH and therefore turn the blood acidic (metabolic acidosis) This makes more complications in blood and causes rupture of coronary artery. OILS IN OUR DIET : OILS IN OUR DIET Saturated Fats : Increase Cholesterol – Avoid Coconut oil, Palm oil, Vanaspati ghee Monounsaturated Fats (MUFA): Heart healthy Olive oil, Groundnut oil, Canola oil, Mustard oil Polyunsaturated Fats (PUFA): Heart healthy Sunflower oil, Soybean oil Omega-3-Fatty acids Fish oil : Heart Healthy LIMIT or AVOID : LIMIT or AVOID Screening : Screening DIAGNOSIS : DIAGNOSIS Echocardiogram: shows a graphic outline of the heart’s movement. Ejection fraction (EF): determines how well your heart pumps with each beat. Blood tests: used to evaluate kidney and thyroid function as well as to check cholesterol levels and the presence of anemia. Chest X-ray: shows the size of your heart and whether there is fluid build up around the heart and lungs. TREATMENT : TREATMENT ANGIO-PLASTY STENTING BY-PASS SURGERY OPEN HEART SURGERY ANGIO-PLASTY video : ANGIO-PLASTY video WHY MALES ? : WHY MALES ? Males are more prone to heart attacks than females The male sex hormones estradiol and estrone, are linked to increased levels of bad cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) and low levels of good cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) in men. Chance of addiction to drugs,smoking,alcohol etc Depression ,loneliness,affection failures can cause heart failures. CONCLUSION : CONCLUSION TAKE HEALTHY DIET MAKE YOUR BODY FIT KEEP YOUR HEART HAPPY AND SAFE REFERENCES : REFERENCES BOOK : BIOLOGY OF CELL AUTHOR : Bruce Alberts, Johnson, lewis, martin raff, keith roberts, peter walter. EDITION : Fourth PAGE NO : 1066—1089 BOOK : BIOCHEMISTRY AUTHOR : STRYER EDITION : 5th. UNIT 21 WWW.medicallibrary.com www.authorstream.com www.wikipedia.com Images collected from www. google.com Videos downloaded from www.youtube.com Slide 28: THANK YOU ANY QUERIES ??? : ANY QUERIES ???