Published on September 27, 2007
The Role of Nuclei-Nuclei Interactions in the Production of Gamma-Ray Lines in Some Solar Flares: The Role of Nuclei-Nuclei Interactions in the Production of Gamma-Ray Lines in Some Solar Flares Boris M. Kuzhevskij (1), Wei-Qun Gan (2), and Leonty I. Miroshnichenko (3, 4) (1) SINP, Moscow State University, Moscow, RUSSIA (2) Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO), Nanjing, CHINA (3) Instituto de Geofísica, UNAM, MEXICO, [email protected] (4) N.V. Pushkov Instiute IZMIRAN, Troitsk, Moscow, RUSSIA Chinese Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2005, v.5, No.3, p.295-301 Abstract: Abstract Dramatic extensions of experimental possibilities (spacecraft RHESSI, CORONAS-F, INTEGRAL and others) in solar gamma-ray astronomy call for urgent and detailed consideration of a set of physical problems of solar activity and solar-terrestrial relationships that earlier may have only been outlined. We undertake a theoretical analysis of issues related to the production of gamma-radiation in the processes of interactions of SEPs - energetic (accelerated) heavy and middle nuclei with the nuclei of the solar atmosphere (the so-called heavy-heavy, or ij-interactions). We also make an estimate of the contribution of these interactions to the formation of nuclear and isotopic abundances of the solar atmosphere in the range of light and rare elements. The analysis is curried out for SEP spectra in the wide range of their spectral indices. We compare our theoretical estimates with RHESSI observations for the flare of 23 July 2002. It was shown that the 24Mg gamma-ray emission in this event was produced by the newly generated 24Mg nuclei. With a high probability, the gamma-ray line emission of 28Si from this flare was generated by the same processes. Relative abundances of some elements in the solar atmosphere and cross sections of i-j and p-k interactions: Relative abundances of some elements in the solar atmosphere and cross sections of i-j and p-k interactions Variant (a), Aller (1963): N(O)/N(Mg) = 36.4; N(C)/N(Mg) = 20.8; Variant (b), Cameron (1973): N(O)/N(Mg) = 22.2; N(C)/N(Mg) = 13.3 ________________________________________________ Cross sections of i-j interactions (0.73-7.2 MeV/n): 250-300 mb (Dyer et al., 1981; Kuzhevskij, 1985). Cross sections of p-k interactions (5.0-30 MeV): 300-550 mb (Dyer et al., 1981; Kuzhevskij, 1985). Ratios of gamma-ray fluxes approach to ~1 for spectral index S ≥3. Table 1. Contribution of 12C and 16O Nuclei into Gamma-Ray Flux from Excited 24Mg Nuclei : Table 1. Contribution of 12C and 16O Nuclei into Gamma-Ray Flux from Excited 24Mg Nuclei _______________________________________ S 2 3 4 5 6 7 _______________________________________ G(C) 0.016 0.20 1.70 15.4 25.90 154 G(C+O) 0.035 0.40 3.40 30.0 50.00 300 _______________________________________ G is a ratio of gamma-ray fluxes produced by p-k and i-j interactions; S – power-law index. Table 2. Ratios of Gamma-Ray Flux from 12C nuclei to that from Other Nuclei: Table 2. Ratios of Gamma-Ray Flux from 12C nuclei to that from Other Nuclei Ratios Experiment Calculations for p-k and (23 July 2002) alpha-k interactions ____________________________________________________ 12C/24Mg 1.01, max 1.90 10.40 (a); 4.40 (b) 12C/20Ne 1.34, max 2.47 2.65 (a); 1.53 (b) 12C/28Si 1.67, max 3.31 31.0 (a); 12.0 (b) 12C/56Fe 3.81, max 8.02 30.00 (a); 2.60 (b) ____________________________________________________ Observational RHESSI data are taken from Smith et al. (2003) ___________________________________ Conclusions: Conclusions Implications and Prospects: Implications and Prospects ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported partly by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR, projects 02-02-39032, 03-02-96026), Federal Purpose Scientific and Technical Program Section I, Project 4), and President’s Grant of Russian Federation (project 1445.2003.2). The work by W. Gan was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation (NNSFC) of China via grants 10173027, 10221001, 10333040 and by grant G2000078402 from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China. Acknowledgements : Acknowledgements Important references: Important references B.M. Kuzhevskij. Nuclear Processes in Solar Atmosphere and Solar Cosmic Radiation. Moscow, Energoatomizdat, 1985. N. Grevesse & A.J. Sauval. Space Sci. Rev., 85, 161 (1998). B. Kozlovsky, R.J. Murphy, and R. Ramaty. Ap. J. Suppl., 141, 523 (2002). D.M. Smith, G.H. Share, R.J. Murphy et al. (in all 6 authors). Ap. J. Lett., 595, L81(2003).