Published on July 31, 2014
PowerPoint Presentation: Language development is a process starting early in human life. Infants start without language, yet by 4 months of age, babies can discriminate speech sounds and engage in babbling . Some research has shown that the earliest learning begins in utero when the fetus starts to recognize the sounds and speech patterns of its mother's voice. There are 3 theoretical perspective on the development of language in order to derive a useful description of language: There are 3 theoretical perspective on the development of language in order to derive a useful description of language The Innatist Theory The Cognitivist Theory The Social Contextual Theory The Innatist Theory : The Innatist Theory The I nnatist theory is mainly concerned with first language acquisition. It asserts that human have access to the knowledge that is processed innately. Which postulate that humans have an innate ability to acquire languages Noam Chomsky (1965) major proponent Chomsky take this as evidence of Innate PowerPoint Presentation: Chomsky also maintains that language and thought are separated, his innatist position derives from his linguistic theory called ‘’TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR’’, which he sets out the rules people use to transform written or spoken words into meaning He proposed that language exist on 2 levels 1. DEEP STRUCTURE- abstract meaning of utterance 2. SURFACE STRUCTURE- actual utterance The Cognitivist Theory : The Cognitivist Theory Asserts that children develop knowledge of the world and then ‘’Map’’ this knowledge onto language categories and relations. From this viewpoint, language development depends on cognitive development, but not vice versa. The Social Contextual Theory : The Social Contextual Theory Vigotsky is the primary proponent of the social contextual theory which estates that social interaction influences both languages and cognitive development Vigotsky’s zone of proximal development suggests that social interaction can help students make cognitive breakthrough He proposed that language and thought are separate and independent to each other untill a child is approximately 2 years of age According to him, after 2 years of age, language and thought become interrelated . Hallmarks of language development: Hallmarks of language development linguist, those who study the structure and function of language - identify the grammar of a language and cognitive development as a system of implicit rules which relate sounds to meaning Grammatical Rules operate on major elements of language: Grammatical Rules operate on major elements of language PHONOLOGY SYNTAX SEMANTICS PRAGMATICS PHONOLOGY: PHONOLOGY Study of sound patterns of language Sounds of a language and structure of sounds. It is concerned with how sounds are organized in a language. It examines what occurs to speech sounds when they are combined to form a word and how these speech sounds interact with each other. Syntax : Syntax it is the study of sentence structure. It attempts to describe what is grammatical in a particular language in terms of rules This rules detail in underlying structure and a transformational process. According to Wood, children are using Adult-like sentences at the age of four. However, there are very basic forms: declarations and questions. Semantic : Semantic One aspect of semantic is Vocabulary. A child begins to use his or her first words around the time of the first birthday. Once the child learn to use his first word is often to used to communicate a variety of messages. This is called “HOLOPHRASIC SPEECH”. Meaning of underlying words of language form sentences PowerPoint Presentation: Study of meaning It is concerned with describing how we present the meaning of a word in our mind of how we used the representation in constructing sentences Based largely on the study of logic in philosophy Pragmatics : Pragmatics Pragmatic development occurs as a child becomes capable of using his grammatical competence to communicate in a variety of context Language can also be used poetically, persuasively, humorously, artistically, tactfully. PowerPoint Presentation: STAGE MIDDLE AGE RANGE (YEARS) GRAMMATICAL CAPABILITIES SOUND LESS THAN 1 Phonological experimentation: crying, cooing, babbling HOLOPHRASES 1 Single word carrying sentential meaning: inflection TELEGRAPHIC UTTERANCES 1 ½ Two word sentences: keyword modified; declarations, imperatives, and negative used SHORT SENTENCES 2- 2 ½ Real sentences, subjects, predicates: tense changes COMPLEX SENTENCES 3-4 New elements and clauses embedded use of part of speech in various ways ADULT LIKE STRUCTURE 4 Structural distinctions made Bilingualism : Bilingualism Is a term used to refer to people who can speak fluently in two different languages. Studies have shown that children who are bilingual were better able to identify the semantics relationship between two terms presented together. Monolinguals tended only to observe the phonological relationship. Bilingual Education: Bilingual Education Is generally defined as an education program that involves the use of two languages of instruction at some point in a student’s school career. Primary objective of bilingual education is to have students become proficient and literate in English language. Approaches to Bilingual Education: Approaches to Bilingual Education TRANSITIONAL BILINGUAL EDUCATION- probably, the most common model of bilingual education in the transitional education approach. The rationale between this model is that native-language services should serve only as a transition to English. Maintenance Bilingual Education: Maintenance B ilingual E ducation Is more comprehensive and long term model. As in the transitional approach, students receive content area instruction in their native language while learning English as a second language Builds on native language literacy and extends it to a second language as well. The objective is for the children to become fluent in both languages by using both instruction. Two-way Bilingual Education: Two-way Bilingual Education Program model for integrating students whose native language is English is a second language. The goal of this approach is to develop bilingual proficiency, academic achievement, and positive cross-cultural attitudes and behaviors among student. Immersion Bilingual Education: Immersion Bilingual Education Represents quite a different approach to learning a second language, students are generally immersed in their second language for a year or two before their native language is introduced as a medium of instruction. PowerPoint Presentation: Feldman and Shen (1971) found that bilinguals performed significantly better than their monolingual counterparts in judging consistence in various object ability to place objects according to relations. Bialytok and Ryan (1985) argue that bilingual children are able to “step-back”. The ability to think about their own knowledge of language is called metalinguistic awareness. Genesee (1985) reports that participants in immersion programs learn to understand and produce the new language quickly and proficiently. Bilingualism and Personality: Bilingualism and Personality People who are bicultural and speak two languages may unconsciously change their personality when the switch languages, according to US study. Language can be a cue that activates different culture-specific frames.