Hicks Demock

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Published on December 8, 2009

Author: hicksa

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Slide 1: Andrew Demock Andy Hicks Frequency : Frequency Struckman-Johnson et al.(1996) found in an empirical study that 22% of all males in the Nebraska Corrections System were raped at some point in their stay; ¼ of these cases qualified as “gang-rape.” Struckman-Johnson and Struckman-Johnson (2000) found that at least 21% of inmates reported an act of “sexual aggression” performed on them by another inmate. Frequency : Frequency Wooden & Paulsen (1982) found that 14% of all male prisoners in the California Department of Corrections & Rehabilitation were forcibly sexually assaulted. Lockwood (1980) studied 89 inmates and found that while 28% had been the targets of “sexual aggression” from other inmates, only 1 inmate had reported the offense. Effects of Prison Sexual Assaults : Effects of Prison Sexual Assaults Inmates live in constant fear of sexual assault, often fearing it more than being murdered (Jones &Schmid, 1989) Rapes that occur anywhere within the prison complex have a negative impact on all of the inmates, whose fear is reinforced Effects of Prison Sexual Assaults : Effects of Prison Sexual Assaults Batiuk and Smith (1989) showed that, oftentimes, violence and aggressive behavior occurred only to preserve one’s presentation of masculinity to avoid “becoming a bitch.” Henley & Tewksbury (2005) wrote, “one of the leading causes of inmate homicides [is] sexual activity” (p. 189). Effects of Prison Sexual Assaults : Effects of Prison Sexual Assaults Henley & Tewksbury (2005) note that the population of HIV positive inmates is 5 times that in free society, and that the rate of AIDS infection is 6 times that outside prison. Condoms are considered contraband in almost all prisons. There are up to 93 men currently incarcerated at the state and federal level who contracted HIV/AIDS only because they were victims of a prison rape (Pinkerton, Galletly, & Seal, 2007). Effects of Prison Sexual Assaults : Effects of Prison Sexual Assaults There has been no research on recidivism rates of the victims of prison rape, however . . . Heil et al. (2009) found that “prison sex offenders are significantly more likely to be arrested for violent offenses upon release. They pose a similar risk to convicted sex offenders on arrests for sexual offenses; however, the average time to arrest was much shorter for prison sex offenders.” Effects of Prison Sexual Assaults : Effects of Prison Sexual Assaults Donaldson (1993) found that the victims of prison rape suffer from PTSD. Struckman-Johnson &Struckman-Johnson (2006) found that, among male prison-rape victims: 37% had suicidal ideation 19% had attempted suicide What Allows this Problem to Exist? : What Allows this Problem to Exist? Hensley and Tewksbury (2005) found the following among prison wardens: They believe over a third of sexual assault cases are reported (p. 191). They estimate less than 4% of all inmates ever experience acts of sexual aggression (p. 191) This study was conducted after passage of the PREA (2003), which stated that 13% of prisoners were raped. What Allows this Problem to Exist? : What Allows this Problem to Exist? Line staff seem to have a better understanding. Eisenberg (1989; 2000) found that: Only 9% of CO’s believed rape was “rare;” 73% of CO’s believed rapes were almost never reported CO’s in the study believed 15% of all inmates experienced rape; the same inmate population showed a 16%-23% rate of victimization A More Troubling Finding . . . : A More Troubling Finding . . . Eisenberg (1989; 2000) also found that: CO’s ignore many reports of abuse. Only 39% of CO’s report that they “generally believe” reports of rape from homosexuals Only 12%report that they “generally believe” reports of rape from masculine prisoners A More Troubling Finding . . . : A More Troubling Finding . . . Eisenberg (1989; 2000) also found that: Some CO’s used rape/housing assignments as leverage. The majority of CO’s felt that an inmate trading sex for protection was NOT sexual abuse. Almost half of all officers believe that inmates “deserve” rape in some situations. Solution, Part I: Reframing : Solution, Part I: Reframing Corrections agencies need to scientifically and confidentially gather data from inmates at regular intervals so that staff (especially the warden) can be aware of the prevalence of the problem. Each study should be done by a firm not affiliated with the prison to maintain neutrality. Solution, Part II: Retraining : Solution, Part II: Retraining Corrections officers need to undergo intensive training that will help them . . . The undesirable consequences of prison rape. How to recognize prison rape. Many believe “rape” is actually consensual sex and ignore it How to communicate with inmates about these issues and recognize warning signs. The proper protocol for dealing with these issues. Evaluation of Solution I : Evaluation of Solution I Evaluation would be three-pronged: The organization’s first goal should be to increase formal reporting of incidents to staff; it can measure this by comparing formal reports of assaults with the yearly inmate survey. Evaluation of Solution I : Evaluation of Solution I Evaluation would be three-pronged: 2. The organization’s second goal will be to increase officer sensitivity to the problem; it can do this by administering a survey like Eisenberg’s yearly. Evaluation of Solution I : Evaluation of Solution I Evaluation would be three-pronged: 3. The organization’s third, most important, and most difficult to accomplish goal is to decrease sexual assaults. This will be measured by the yearly survey conducted by the outside firm. Intermission : Intermission

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