History of AIC rise Zionism to 1967

Information about History of AIC rise Zionism to 1967

Published on December 18, 2007

Author: brod

Source: authorstream.com

Content

The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict:  The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict Denis J. Sullivan Political Science & International Affairs Northeastern University Modern Middle East & Arab-Israeli Conflict:  Modern Middle East & Arab-Israeli Conflict Inseparable Colonial Roots are the same External influence exacerbating internal divisions Internal diversity does not necessarily translate into internal conflicts “Divide and rule” … Division, not diversity, causes conflict External Interests:  External Interests 19th Century European Racism 20th Century European Colonialism (“divide and rule”) 20th Century Western need for Oil Shipping Cold-War politics & “Our b*$tards” Post-Cold War Clash of Civilizations? War on Terror 21st Century global demand for Oil Other Interests:  Other Interests Peace (good for Business) (access to Oil) (supports war on Terror) Images:  Images What’s it all about?:  What’s it all about? Two Peoples, One Land :  Two Peoples, One Land Clashing claims or Reconcilable differences? 1948 - Israel’s Independence, Palestine’s Nakbeh 1967 – Six-Day War: Revolutionary consequences 1987 – Intifada/Uprising: Palestinian Self-Reliance 1993 - Oslo “Peace Process” 2000 - Second Intifada 2005 – Israel’s Disengagement from Gaza “Layers” … :  “Layers” … Shrek: Ogres … ogres have layers AIC … AIC has layers Israeli layers – left, right, center; observant, secular, anti-Zionist Arab layers – Egyptian, Jordanian, Lebanese, Syrian, Palestinian Palestinian layers – Fatah, anti-Fatah, Hamas, PFLP, pro-Jordan, … American layers – partisan, governmental, non-governmental Global layers – UN, EU, US, Russia, “Third World” Origins of the Modern Middle East & the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict:  Origins of the Modern Middle East & the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict 1897 - First Zionist Congress, Basel Switzerland 1915 - Hussein-McMahon (an “Arab State”) 1916 - Sykes-Picot (British-French Colonies) 1917 - Balfour (a “Jewish Home”) 1919 – Faisal-Weizmann Agreement (binational state) Zionism: Jewish Nationalism:  Zionism: Jewish Nationalism Politics, not religion (initially) Response to pogroms, anti-semitism The First Zionists: Secular, non-observant, as well as Religious Jews from Europe, East & West Anti-Zionists: Orthodox Jews in Palestine; some secular Jews in Europe Anti-Semites yet Zionists: Christians in Britain (and now U.S.) Who is a Zionist? Who an Anti-Zionist? Hussein-McMahon:  Hussein-McMahon “Great Britain is prepared to recognise and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all the regions lying within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif of Mecca.” “GB will guarantee the Holy Places against all external aggression.” Sir Henry McMahon letter to Sharif Hussein October 24, 1915 Sykes-Picot:  Sykes-Picot Britain and France will divide “the Middle East” according to their own interests. Balfour Declaration:  Balfour Declaration “His Majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine.” A. J. Balfourto Lord Rothschild November 2, 1917 Faisal-Weizmann Agreement:  Faisal-Weizmann Agreement “Palestine … shall be controlled by the most cordial goodwill … and Arab and Jewish duly accredited agents shall be established.” “No religious test shall ever be required for the exercise of civil or political rights.” “The Zionist Organization will use its best efforts to assist the Arab State in providing the means for developing the natural resources and economic possibilities [of Palestine]. - 3 January 1919 Result: Colonial Choice:  Result: Colonial Choice Sykes-Picot trumps Hussein-McMahon; Balfour still valid. British-French Competition creates further divisions “Transjordan” & Palestine Syria & Lebanon “Independent” Egypt SAUDI Arabia Sykes-Picot:  Sykes-Picot Britain and France will divide “the Middle East” according to their own interests. Populations in Palestine:  Populations in Palestine Between 1900 and 1947, the Jewish population in Palestine increased from 10% to 35% (due to immigration of European Jews). 1878: 450,000 Arabs + 15,000 Jews 1931: 850,000 Arabs + 175,000 Jews 1946: 1,300,000 Arabs + 600,000 Jews 1947, UN proposed that Palestine be divided into a Palestinian State and a Jewish State 1948:  1948 Israeli Independence – May 1948 Palestinian Nakbeh – independence denied; 750,000 refugees ARAB-Israeli Conflict – Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq vs. Israel ARAB-Israeli:  ARAB-Israeli Arab-Arab conflict  Arab-Israeli conflict 1940s: Egypt (“Ottoman-Egyptian Monarch”) v. Jordan & Iraq (“pro-British” Hashemite Kingdoms) Post-58: Iraq v. Syria (two Ba’thist regimes); “Republics” (Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon) vs. “Monarchs” (Jordan, Saudi) 1956:  1956 Cold-War Politics – 1955 MEDO/Baghdad Pact “Arms for food” – Czech (Soviet)/Egyptian Arms Deal Aswan Dam – US/Britain/World Bank JFDulles rescinding Dam offer Egypt – Soviet Cooperation Nationalizing Suez Canal 1967:  1967 Israel wins (land) and loses: “underdog” status; “David” (perceived as ‘weak’) becomes “Goliath” (power-house); Jordan: West Bank; economic asset Syria: Golan Egypt: Sinai; respect/prestige; economic asset (Sinai/Suez) Palestinians: more refugees; more occupation; more neglect US: closer alliance with Israel UN: greater role in setting terms for peace Post-67:  Post-67 UN 242: basis for all future negotiations PLO as umbrella: Fatah, PFLP, DFLP, PFLP-GC, Saiqa, ALF, PLF, PPSF Arafat in charge, 1969 – 2004 Black September 1970: Arafat vs. King Hussein PLO in Lebanon 1970 – 82 Israel in Lebanon 1982 – 2000 (Barak) Syria in Lebanon 1976 – 2005 (Hariri) Intifada:  Intifada Neglect by Arab States (Nov. ‘87 Summit in Amman) Occupation by Israel (20-year Anniversary of ‘67) ineffectiveness of PLO (exile in Tunis) a “spark” (Dec. ‘87) rise of local leaders Hamas is born; Israel is mid-wife From Uprising to Independence?:  From Uprising to Independence? Intifada & re-emergence of “Green Line” US-PLO dialogue, 1988-90 GWII: 1990-91 Madrid Peace Talks, 1991 Oslo 1993 Arafat returns to Palestine, 1994 Rabin assassination, Nov. 1995 Oslo, 1995-2000: a failure End of Part I:  End of Part I

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