How to Make Biodiesel D Geller

Information about How to Make Biodiesel D Geller

Published on November 12, 2007

Author: Edolf

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  Biodiesel Production and Chemistry Daniel Geller – UGA Engineering Outreach http://www.engr.uga.edu/service/outreach Slide2:  FATS and OILS + ALCOHOL catalyst BIODIESEL + GLYCEROL Biodiesel Production Biodiesel – an established technology:  Biodiesel – an established technology Studied since 1980s – solved issue of oil viscosity reduction in oils. Established production methods and standardization ASTM D 6751 (2001). Slide4:  The most common form of Biodiesel is that made by the transesterification of vegetable oils C C C R1 R2 R3 + 3MeOH C C C OH OH OH MeR1 MeR2 MeR3 + Triglyceride (fats and oils) Methanol (alcohol) Glycerol Methyl Ester (Biodiesel) NaOH Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production:  Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Simple to make, difficult to make right Biodiesel Production:  Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Tank 2 add tank 1 mixture to oil. Mix well and heat to 150oF Simple to make, difficult to make right Biodiesel Production:  Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Tank 2 add tank 1 mixture to oil. Mix well and heat to 150oF Allow tank to settle, decant bottom glycerol layer Simple to make, difficult to make right Biodiesel Production:  Biodiesel Production Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Tank 2 add tank 1 mixture to oil. Mix well and heat to 150oF Allow tank to settle, decant bottom glycerol layer Tank 3 wash with water settle, decant bottom water layer - repeat Simple to make, difficult to make right Slide9:  C C C R1 R2 R3 + 6MeOH C C C OH OH OH MeR1 MeR2 MeR3 + Triglyceride (fats and oils) Methanol (alcohol) Glycerol Methyl Ester (Biodiesel) NaOH Molar Ratios/Excess Driving the Reaction 3 MeOH are required for each Triglyceride. To shift this to the right we add 6 METHANOL molecules per oil molecule. Reaction Equilibrium – 2 Phase Reaction:  Reaction Equilibrium – 2 Phase Reaction Reaction Equilibrium – 2 Phase Reaction:  Reaction Equilibrium – 2 Phase Reaction Phase 1 Methoxide Oil Biodiesel Glycerine Water 80% Tank 1 mix alcohol and catalyst Add 80% to Oil -React Reaction Equilibrium – 2 Phase Reaction:  Reaction Equilibrium – 2 Phase Reaction Phase 1 Methoxide Oil Biodiesel Glycerine Water 80% 3 phases: Unreacted Oil, Biodiesel, Glycerine Reaction Equilibrium – 2 Phase Reaction:  Reaction Equilibrium – 2 Phase Reaction Phase 1 Methoxide Oil Biodiesel Glycerine Water 80% 20% Phase 2 Remove Glycerine Phase 2: Mix remaining 20% methoxide with oil/Biodiesel mixture Reaction Equilibrium – 2 Phase Reaction:  Reaction Equilibrium – 2 Phase Reaction Phase 1 Methoxide Oil Biodiesel Glycerine Water 80% 20% Phase 2 Finish Reaction to ~100% completion Reaction Equilibrium – 2 Phase Reaction:  Reaction Equilibrium – 2 Phase Reaction Phase 1 Methoxide Oil Biodiesel Glycerine Water 80% 20% Phase 2 Remove excess glycerine. Add water and wash several times Reaction Equilibrium – 2 Phase Reaction:  Reaction Equilibrium – 2 Phase Reaction Phase 1 Methoxide Oil Biodiesel Glycerine Water 80% 20% Phase 2 Remove Water Fatty Acid Chemistry:  Fatty Acid Chemistry C12:0 C12:3 # of carbon atoms # of double bonds Triglyceride Structure:  Triglyceride Structure C18:1 – Oleic Acid C18:1 – Oleic Acid C16:0 – Palmitic Acid Glyceride Structure:  Glyceride Structure Monoglyceride Diglyceride Triglyceride Saturated vs. Unsaturated:  Saturated vs. Unsaturated POOR COLD FLOW PROPERTIES IMPROVED NOx EMISSIONS SATURATED FA = POSSIBLE NOx INCREASE GOOD COLD FLOW PROPERTIES UNSATURATED FA = Slide21:  * Not high-oleic variety. Percentages may not add to 100% due to rounding and other constituents not listed. Where percentages vary, average values are used. Traditional Biodiesel Feedstocks:  Traditional Biodiesel Feedstocks The most common form of Biodiesel is that made by the transesterification of vegetable oils In the US, soybeans provide the most common feedstock Traditional Biodiesel Feedstocks:  In Europe, rapeseed provides the most common feedstock Traditional Biodiesel Feedstocks The most common form of Biodiesel is that made by the transesterification of vegetable oils Why is Soy the Most Common Feedstock:  Markets soy oil has established market, delivery, pricing and processing systems Why is Soy the Most Common Feedstock Why is Soy the Most Common Feedstock:  Markets Composition adequate cold flow characteristics easier to achieve ASTM spec Why is Soy the Most Common Feedstock Why is Soy the Most Common Feedstock:  Markets Composition Price While soy is not the most inexpensive oil, it has a good cost to quality ratio Why is Soy the Most Common Feedstock Why is Soy the Most Common Feedstock:  Why is Soy the Most Common Feedstock Markets Composition Price Quality ASTM spec is based on Soybean Oil Most off the shelf processes based on soy What are the disadvantages of Soy? :  What are the disadvantages of Soy? Competition as most desired feedstock competitive marketplace leads to unstable prices What are the disadvantages of Soy? :  What are the disadvantages of Soy? Competition EU incompatibility Like most US feedstocks cold flow properties complicate achieving EU spec Can be used as blending stock for EU fuel What are the disadvantages of Soy? :  What are the disadvantages of Soy? Competition EU incompatibility Agronomics Soy cannot be grown in the southeast like it can in the Midwest It may turn out other feedstocks are better suited to southeastern farms What about Canola or Rapeseed:  What about Canola or Rapeseed Rapeseed Common in Europe Produces an INDUSTRIAL OIL with high eicosenoic (C20:1) and erucic (C22:1) fatty acid content poor nutritional characteristics unique industrial applications What about Canola or Rapeseed:  What about Canola or Rapeseed Canola is modified rapeseed CANadian Oil Low Acid CANOLA has been bred to minimize high C20:1 and C22:1 and can be used in food markets CANOLA is common in US because it produces oil for the food market What about Canola or Rapeseed:  What about Canola or Rapeseed Both rapeseed and canola oil are available for Biodiesel market Rapeseed oil prices compete with industrial market CANOLA oil prices compete with food market What about Canola or Rapeseed:  What about Canola or Rapeseed Benefits of CANOLA: Low Erucic acid content High OLEIC acid content has benefits to health and Biodiesel production! Excellent cold flow properties in CANOLA due to near 90% oleic acid content Other Possible Feedstocks:  Other Possible Feedstocks Tropical: Palm Jatropha Emerging: Sunflower Mustard Camelina Southeast: Poultry Fat Peanuts Cottonseed Oil Unique: Cupeha Castor Small Scale Reactor:  Small Scale Reactor 15 gallon reactor Sight glass w/ 3 way valve for product separation Electric Agitator provides continuous stirring 3-10 gallon batches Engine Testing Facility:  Engine Testing Facility

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