Published on October 17, 2007
Art of the Early Renaissance : Art of the Early Renaissance Mike Venegas Outline: Outline I will focus on the visual arts of the Early Renaissance period. What the Renaissance was? How it started? Where it started? How Early Renaissance art was created The Workshop system Innovations of Early Renaissance art Early Renaissance artists and sculpture Renaissance: Renaissance A period from the early 1300’s to roughly 1600 when there was a renewed interest in history literature and art. Renaissance = “Rebirth” Europe’s economic recovery Renewed study of ancient Greece and Rome Humanism: Humanism The birth of humanism Humanism was an ideal that focused on the world of mankind as much as a concern for the hereafter. Rejected medieval view of humanity and focused on the goodness of mankind Humanism (cont.): Humanism (cont.) Began in Florence, Italy Ideal setting Wealthy patrons Early Renaissance: Early Renaissance Period from 1400 to 1500 Artist as a craftsmen Art created by commission Art through imitation Workshop system: Workshop system Collaboration of masters and apprentices Family-based Run like a business Workshop: Workshop Art was commissioned Apprentice started in early teens Studied under master for several years Products of the workshop system: Products of the workshop system Michaelangelo Master – Domenico Ghirlandaio Leonardo da Vinci Master- Andrea del Verocchio Innovations: Innovations Frescoes- art created on damp plaster Oil paints Realistic portrayal of human nature Innovations: Innovations Chiaroscurro- use of shadows to show balance of light and dark Science Linear perspective- allowed artist to represent objects in relative sizes Giotto: Giotto Giotto is considered to be the most influential artist on Renaissance painting. Father of the Renaissance Giotto’s dignified figures seemed to displace space, to stand upon the ground with real substance and weight. The figures seem to extend both backward, into the picture, and forward, toward the spectator’s space. Slide13: slide Filippo Bruneleschi(1337-1446): Filippo Bruneleschi (1337-1446) Florentine architect and engineer First to carry out a series of optical experiments that led to a mathematical theory of perspective. His method of perspective had a dramatic impact on the depiction of 3-dimensional space in the arts One point linear perspective: One point linear perspective Pierro della Francesca “View of an Ideal City” Masaccio(1401-1428): Masaccio (1401-1428) One of first artists to apply the new method of linear perspective in his fresco of the Holy Trinity Used a barrel vaulted ceiling to imitate with precision the true appearance of architectural space Figures depict accurate human anatomy The Holy Trinity: The Holy Trinity Pierro della Francesca(1416-1492): Pierro della Francesca (1416-1492) Expressed an obsession with perspective His works are characterized by carefully analyzed architectural spaces and sensitivity to geometric purity of shapes. Wrote several treatises on perspective and geometry Carefully analyzed perspective and geometry: Carefully analyzed perspective and geometry The Discovery and Proving of the True Cross Donatello(1386-1466): Donatello (1386-1466) New sense of naturalism in sculpture Use of classical contrapposto stance (relaxed not rigid) Statue of David considered first full scale nude since ancient times Andrea Mantegna(1430-1506): Andrea Mantegna (1430-1506) Created unusual vantage points Looking at figures from below Lamentation of the Dead Christ the viewer is looking from the feet of the subject. Deep foreshortening Effectively placed the viewer at the scene, adding to the sense of empathy Lamentation of the Dead Christ: Lamentation of the Dead Christ Use of unusual vantage points Sandra Boticelli(1445-1510): Sandra Boticelli (1445-1510) First artist to paint a full-length female nude In Birth of Venus the figure occupies the center of the work which was traditionally reserved for the Virgin. This work is possibly the most pagan image of the entire Renaissance. Literature in the Early Renaissance: Literature in the Early Renaissance Jennifer Montes Before the Renaissance: Before the Renaissance Christian Age Literary production limited Important original books of the time Exameron by St. Ambrose City of God and the Confessions by St. Augustine Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius Characterized by:: Characterized by: Large collections of church hymns Didactic poems of relative significance Sermons Theological treatises Legends of various saints Fables Historical chronicles beginning with Creation Rise of Humanism: Rise of Humanism Involved the modern discovery or rediscovery of those fields we now call the humanities History, moral and political philosophy, poetry, literature, rhetoric, grammar, and linguistic study and interpretation. Humanism was a deliberate revival, renascence, or "renaissance" of the arts and humanities. Humanism: Humanism Humanists took Christian ideas and secular and pagan (Greek and Roman) ideas to gain knowledge useful in making them better people Virtuous, responsible, educated citizens, aware of what had been thought and done at other times and places. The humanists sought to understand what it was to be fully human. Early Renaissance affected by:: Early Renaissance affected by: Works of Dante Works of Petrarch Invention and widespread use of movable type Dante Alighieri: Dante Alighieri Born in Florence, Italy in 1265 Son of Alighiero di Bellincione Alighieri and his first wife Bella Wrote his first book “Vita Nuova” (New Life) in 1294 Exiled in 1302 Exile: Exile De Vulgari Eloquentia –treatise on his native language Never completed Il Convivio –collection of verse Never completed Began writing the Commedia (Divine Comedy) in 1306 La Divina Commedia : La Divina Commedia The Divine Comedy Completed in 1321 Narrative poem Written in terza rima (third rhyme) a verse form consisting of tercets rhyme scheme (aba, bcb, cdc) Form modified by Dante Divine Comedy: Divine Comedy Allegory of human life written to convert the corrupt to righteousness Represents three realms of the Christian afterlife Inferno (Hell) Puragatorio (Purgatory) Paradiso (Heaven Influences of Dante: Influences of Dante Virgil Lucan Theological Influences St. Thomas Aquinas Sts. Gregory, Isidore, Anselm, and Bonaventure Boethius Influenced by Dante: Influenced by Dante Artists Giotto “Cimabue thought/To lord it over painting’s field; and now/ The cry is Giotto’s, and his name eclipsed.” (Purgatorio, canto XI) Michelangelo Buonarroti’s Last Judgement Salvadore Dali Michelangelo: Michelangelo Dali’s representation of Dante: Dali’s representation of Dante Influenced by Dante: Influenced by Dante Authors Shelley Byron Yeats T.S. Eliot Francesco Petrarca: Francesco Petrarca Born in Arezzo in 1304 Son of a Ser Petracco 1341 crowned poet laureate in Rome Created works in Latin Most popular are those written in Italian Trionfi—allegorical and moral Written in terza rima Canzoniere: Canzoniere “Song Book” Considered Petrarch’s masterpiece Contains mostly sonnets To a lesser degree canzoni, sestine, ballate, and madrigals Canzoniere: Canzoniere Inspired by the lady, Laura Deals with Love, political and patriotic feeling, and issues of morality Unrequited Love Seeing her brings him joy Creates unfulfilled desires Laura: Laura First saw his “muse”, Laura, April 6, 1327 (Good Friday) in the church of Sainte-Claire d’ Avignon Some doubt her existance Others believe she may have been the wife of Hugues de Sade The Petrarchian Sonnet: The Petrarchian Sonnet Now known also as the Italian Sonnet 14 lines Consists of 2 divisions First eight lines (octet) Second six lines (sestet) Rhyme Scheme Abbaabbacdecde Sonnet 140 : Sonnet 140 Amor, che nel penser mio vive et regna (a) e 'l suo seggio maggior nel mio cor tene, (b) talor armato ne la fronte vene; (b) ivi si loca et ivi pon sua insegna. (a) Quella ch' amare et sofferir ne 'nsegna (a) e vol che 'l gran desio, l'accesa spene (b) ragion, vergogna, et reverenza affrene, (b) di nostro ardir fra se stessa si sdegna. (a) Onde Amor paventoso fugge al core, (c) lasciando ogni sua impresa, et piange et trema; (d) ivi s'asconde et non appar più fore. (e) Che poss' io far, temendo il mio signore, (c) se non star seco infin a l'ora estrema? (d) ché bel fin fa chi ben amando more. (e) Influences of Petrarch: Influences of Petrarch Dante Cicero Virgil Influenced by Petrarch: Influenced by Petrarch Chaucer makes reference to Petrarch in the prologue to the Clerk’s Tale in his Canterbury Tales "Francis Petrarch, the laureate poet/ Was this clerk's name, whose rhetoric so sweet/ Illumed all Italy with poetry” Sir Thomas Wyatt Imitated his form in at least 27 of his poems Petrarchanism: Petrarchanism French and Italian poets imitated his style indirectly Bembo called for poets to imitate the original only Rejecters of Petrarchanism: Rejecters of Petrarchanism The English rejected Petrarch’s form Elizabethan sonnet writers thought it was obsolete and created their own style No direct imitation of Petrarch in England Marked avoidance Canzioniere not published in England until 1850’s Impact of Movable Type: Impact of Movable Type Invented in 1440 By Johannes Gutenberg Led to a great demand for books in the mid 15th century Printers met the high demand by printing an over-abundance of books. Prices plummeted (20% less than a manuscript) Gutenberg’s Press: Gutenberg’s Press Movable type: Movable type Aided in political and religious revolution Humanist movement fueled its success. Canterbury Tales and Dante’s Divine Comedy were some of the first printed Led to the rise of the vernacular (non-Latin) literary text Early Renaissance: Early Renaissance The style and ideas from the Early Renaissance carried throughout the renaissance period and left a lasting impact on modern culture.