Published on December 23, 2009
HYBRID VEHICLES : HYBRID VEHICLES A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle.The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors HEAVY VEHICLES : HEAVY VEHICLES Hybrid power trains are used for diesel-electric or turbo-electric railway locomotives, buses, heavy goods vehicles, mobile hydraulic machinery, and ships. Typically some form of heat engine (usually diesel) drives an electric generator or hydraulic pump which powers one or more electric or hydraulic motors. There are advantages in distributing power through wires or pipes rather than mechanical elements especially when multiple drives. With the exception of non nuclear submarines, presently there is no or relatively little energy storage capacity on most heavy vehicles, e.g. auxiliary batteries and hydraulic accumulators—this is changing RAIL TRANSPORT : RAIL TRANSPORT JapanThe first operational prototype of a hybrid train engine with significant energy storage and energy regeneration capability was introduced in Japan as the KiHa E200. It utilizes battery packs of lithium ion batteries mounted on the roof to store recovered energy North AmericaIn the U.S., General Electric introduced a prototype railroad engine with their "Ecomagination" technology in 2007. They store energy in a large set of sodium nickel chloride (Na-NiCl2) batteries to capture and store energy normally dissipated during dynamic braking or coasting downhill CRANES : CRANES Railpower Technologies Corp. engineers working with TSI Terminal Systems Inc. in Vancouver, British Columbia are testing a hybrid diesel electric power unit with battery storage for use in Rubber Tyred Gantry (RTG) cranes ROAD TRANSPORT,COMMERCIAL VEHICLES : ROAD TRANSPORT,COMMERCIAL VEHICLES Early hybrid systems are being investigated for trucks and other heavy highway vehicles with some operational trucks and buses starting to come into use. ENGINE TYPE : ENGINE TYPE Hybrid New Flyer Metrobus When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it most often refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. These encompass such vehicles as the AHS2 Toyota Prius, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid A petroleum-electric hybrid most commonly uses internal combustion engines (generally gasoline or Diesel engines, powered by a variety of fuels) and electric batteries HYBRID FUEL (dual mode ) : HYBRID FUEL (dual mode ) Some electric trolleybuses can switch between an on board diesel engine and overhead electrical power depending on conditions In principle, this could be combined with a battery subsystem to create a true plug-in hybrid trolleybus, although as of 2006, no such design seems to have been announced. Flexible-fuel vehicles can use a mixture of input fuels mixed in one tank — typically gasoline and ethanol, or methanol, or biobutanol. Bi-fuel vehicle:Liquified petroleum gas and natural gas are very different from petroleum or diesel and cannot be used in the same tanks, so it would be impossible to build an (LPG or NG) flexible fuel system. Some vehicles have been modified to use another fuel source if it is available, such as cars modified to run on autogas (LPG) and diesels modified to run on waste vegetable oil that has not been processed into biodiesel. Power-assist mechanisms for bicycles and other human-powered vehicles ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES : ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Relying on both the engine and the electric motors for peak power needs resulting in a smaller engine sized more for average usage rather than peak power usage. A smaller engine can have less internal losses and lower weight. Having significant battery storage capacity to store and reuse recaptured energy, especially in stop-and-go traffic. Recapturing significant amounts of energy during braking that are normally wasted as heat. This regenerative braking reduces vehicle speed by converting some of its kinetic energy into electricity, depending upon the power rating of the motor/generator; HYBRID VEHICLE EMISSIONS : HYBRID VEHICLE EMISSIONS Hybrid Vehicle emissions today are getting close to or even lower than the recommended level set by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). The recommended levels they suggest for a typical passenger vehicle should be equated to 5.5 metric tons of carbon dioxide. The three most popular hybrid vehicles, Honda Civic, Honda Insight and Toyota Prius.