Published on January 29, 2008
Hymenoplasty: Hymenoplasty Dr Muhammad El Hennawy Ob/gyn specialist Rass el barr central hospital and dumyat specialised hospital Dumyatt – EGYPT www.geocities.com/mmhennawy before: before I have never seen it I never do it I do not recommend anyone to do it But I have read about it and this is what I have collected about this subject The hymen: The hymen Hymen (HI-min) - The hymen is a thin, delicate membrane (a membrane is like skin but much thinner). It partially covers the opening of the vagina in most girls. The hymen is simply the vestigial membranes of the vagina and urogenital sinus at their point of fusion. An elastic and collagenous tissue. In younger women, hymen is very vascular as opposed to menopausal women, which are very thin. In adult virginal women, the hymen is a different thickness that surrounds the vaginal opening more or less completed Name: Name The hymen is named after, Hymenaeus, the Greek god of marriage and the wedding feast or song. Hymenaeus, son of Aphrodite and Dionysus, is mentioned in the Illiad and the Aeneid and is typically depicted with the marriage torch held aloft. Function of the hymen: Function of the hymen The biological function of the human hymen is still uncertain; scientists hypothesize that it protects the vagina from infection in infants. The social function of the hymen, however, has been and still is a mythical symbol of virginity in many cultures Allow outflow of menstrual blood Types: Types Annular or circular – – in which the hymen forms a ring around the vaginal opening Dentate fimbriated or denticular hymen -- a hymen with an opening which has serrate edges crescentric or lunar hymen, a moon-shaped hymen.-- anterior , posterior hymen bifenestratus, -- a hymen with two openings side by side and a broad septum between them. Septate – a hymen in which the opening is divided by a narrow septum. hymen subseptus-- a hymen in which the opening is partially filled by a septum growing out of one wall, but not reaching the other. Cribriform or fenestrated - full of holes. Complete absence of hymen Microperforate --almost completely covers the opening but there is the opening which is very small Imperforate --completely covers the opening Tear causes(Non sexual or Sexual): Tear causes (Non sexual or Sexual) Many girls and teens tear or otherwise dilate their hymen during first intercourse (coitus) or Rape . while participating in sports like bicycling, horseback riding, gymnastics or inserting tampons, or while masturbating. A girl may not even know this has occurred, since there may be little or no blood or pain involved when this happens. Slide9: The hymental opening As a role, the hymen is torn during first intercourse (coitus) specially posteriorly or posterolaterally in two or more portions. commonly , rupture of the hymen is accompanied by slight bleeding, which stop spontaneously Occasionly a rather large vessel is torn and can bleed profuesly that can cause shock and need of blood transfusion , it can be controlled by applying direct pressure to bleeding point but if it fail you must ligate or suture bleeding point The hymen may not be lacerated even with repeated coitus ( wide or elastic hymen ). In fact, many cases of pregnancy have been reported in women in whom the hymen has not have been ruptured. Some women are even born without a hymen A woman's future can hang, literally, by a membrane: A woman's future can hang, literally, by a membrane The hymen's a delicate membrane that separates girls from women In some societies, the hymen must be intact in unmarried women as proof of virginity. Without it,-- women are shunned as whores --in extreme cases even murdered by male relatives to restore family honour. "virgin: "virgin The term "virgin" typically means someone who has never had sexual intercourse (specifically the penis entering the vagina) a man loses his virginity the first time his penis enters the vagina. Similarly, a woman loses her virginity the first time a penis enters her vagina For the most part, being a virgin is not about whether a woman's hymen is intact or broken It used to be that on her wedding night, if a woman's first sexual intercourse (losing her virginity) was painful and there was blood on the sheets, that was proof that she was a virgin Virginity in Egypt: Virginity in Egypt It is a sine qua non for marriage in Egypt, it is not unusual for a rape victim to marry her rapist to maintain at least the appearance of honor. In fact, according to Egyptian law, once a rapist marries his victim, charges against him are dropped, and honor is restored to the woman and her family. It is not uncommon for a gynecologist: It is not uncommon for a gynecologist to find in his office a blushing young female surrounded by a whole horde of male relatives demanding that she be examined She did not bleed during sexual intercourse on her wedding night, and the men all want to know why. You always have to favor the girl, because if you don't, she'll be killed by her family. Sometimes, if the girl has the opportunity, she'll beg you to cover for her. They are very frightened, they know they will be killed. So you tell the male relatives the bride had an elastic hymen, which many women do anyway, and in such cases she wouldn't bleed. "Honor killings are still carried out in Arabic country. A family will arrange for an underage brother or male relative to do it. Then when there is an investigation, nothing happens. The case is dropped the classic Arabic saying: the classic Arabic saying The honor of the girl is like a single match, Once spent, it's gone forever the hymen is referred to colloquially as "wish al-bent," or "face of the girl." In other words, without it, you have no identity, you are no one. Surgeon restore hymens for: Surgeon restore hymens for for cultural reasons --- very important situation for some women, and this operation quite honestly saves lives For tighten vagina walls for better sex Hymenorrhaphy, hymenoplasty, or Hymen restoration or Hymen replacement surgery or Restoration of the hymenal ring : Hymenorrhaphy, hymenoplasty, or Hymen restoration or Hymen replacement surgery or Restoration of the hymenal ring It is a medical procedure offered in countries. It is illegal in most Arab countries It is done on an outpatient basis and with or without anesthesia Types of surgery: Types of surgery if it is not too damaged (surgical repair) --piecing together its remnants when the hymenal remnants are insufficient ---stitch across hymen -- Cerclage around hymenal ring by thread from underwear of wedding night ---approximates undermined hymen remnants --- approximates a flap from the vaginal wall across the opening --- Alloplant for hymenoplasty The simplest technique of hymenorraphy (surgical repair): The simplest technique of hymenorraphy (surgical repair) Pain-killing medicine is taken 1 hour before the operation. The actual operation is performed under a general or local anaesthetic with muscle relaxants. The hymen is reconstructed, recreate the hymen by piecing together its remnants if it is not too damaged, restoring its original appearance as a circular membrane with a central opening Surgery can also include inserting a gelatin capsule filled with a blood-like substance that will burst during intercourse, simulating bleeding. Must be done three to seven days before the wedding. Because the tissue is simply pulled together and the procedure doesn’t last, catgut sutures are used to approximate hymen remnants. Because healing is rare because hymen is relatively avascular Stitch across hymen: Stitch across hymen by thread from underwear of wedding night -- tied inside Cerclage around hymen: Cerclage around hymen when the hymenal remnants are insufficient -- Cerclage around hymenal ring by thread from underwear of wedding night -- tide inside A gelatin capsule: A gelatin capsule inserting a gelatin capsule filled with a blood-like substance that will burst during intercourse, simulating bleeding. The definitive procedure HYMEN REPLACEMENT SURGERY: The definitive procedure HYMEN REPLACEMENT SURGERY when the hymenal remnants are insufficient 1 -approximates undermined hymen remnants 2- or a vaginal flap Slide23: 1 - approximates undermined hymen remnants and often produces vascular bands across the introitus Slide24: 2- he attaches a vaginal flap (A small section) from the vaginal wall across the opening ,often produces vascular bands across the introitus Slide25: . The process takes one to two hours, and patients can return to work the next day. It is procedure that can be done under local anaesthetic and done as a day care surgery. The sutures are dissolvable. One should allow it to heal and avoid getting married for three weeks after surgery. These women may be told to instruct their husbands that their hymen is very vascular and that he should cut it with a "sharp instrument" before they attempt sexual intercourse Alloplant for hymenoplasty : Alloplant for hymenoplasty The allografts with controllable extraction of glycosaminoglycans from collagen fibres having low antigenicity non-toxic, not encapsulated, gradually resorpted and replaced mostly by natural recipient tissue, were named "Alloplant". Alloplant biomaterials can selectable stimulate the natural tissues regeneration. Therefore, alloplant biomaterials can be tried in surgery for selectable restoration of different tissues. Wassel &Tantawi: Wassel &Tantawi In late November 1998, the Grand Mufti Wassel stated that a rape victim is permitted to undergo hymen repair surgery. Tantawi argued that the procedure would constitute a form of deception against her future husband, and therefore not allowed. The actual punishment for adulterers stated in the Koran: The actual punishment for adulterers stated in the Koran It applies to both men and women, Muslim activists argue. Unmarried adulterers are to be punished with 100 lashes while married adulterers should be punished by death but only in the case that four witnesses have observed the actual event of intercourse.