icws 2006 3

Information about icws 2006 3

Published on June 18, 2007

Author: Breezy

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Semantic Interoperability of Web Services – Challenges and Experiences:  Semantic Interoperability of Web Services – Challenges and Experiences Meenakshi Nagarajan, Kunal Verma, Amit P. Sheth, John Miller, Jon Lathem [email protected] http://lsdis.cs.uga.edu/~meena LSDIS Lab, Department Of Computer Science, University of Georgia Semantic Web services and processes at LSDIS:  Semantic Web services and processes at LSDIS Semantics in the entire life cycle Semantic publishing Meteor-S Policy SLA Autonomic Computing QoS specifications Semantic Authentication Semantic WS – WSDL-S Semantic Discovery Semantic Composition Transactions for Web processes Operation Preconditions and Effects Interoperability – data mediation Web services – then and now:  Web services – then and now Surpassed communication, location, system level heterogeneities Heterogeneity in structure and semantics continued to exist Shifting focus on ‘semantic’ descriptions of service message elements and functionalities Enable automation of discovery, composition, execution etc. Semantic match however does not ensure interoperation A semantic match alone does not suffice:  A semantic match alone does not suffice Outline of this talk:  Outline of this talk Message level heterogeneities hindering interoperation what are they, why do they exist characterizing the different types Resolving such heterogeneities State of the art Our approach Semantic Web services : WSDL-S Using existing WS technology to achieve (automatic) mediation WSDL + Axis 2 Message level Heterogeneities:  Message level Heterogeneities More on Heterogeneities:  More on Heterogeneities Databases * Syntactic heterogeneity : differences in the language used for representing the elements Structural heterogeneity : differences in the types, structures of the elements Model/Representational heterogeneity : differences in the underlying models (database, ontologies) or their representations (relational, object-oriented) Semantic heterogeneity : where the same real world entity is represented using different terms (or structures) or vice versa Web services XML based environment eliminates syntactic and model heterogeneity Structural and Semantic heterogeneities continue to exist * Semantic and Schematic Similarities between Database Objects: A Context-based approach : Vipul Kashyap, Amit Sheth - VLDB Journal: Very Large Data Bases 1996 Classifying heterogeneities - 1:  Classifying heterogeneities - 1 Classifying heterogeneities - 2:  Classifying heterogeneities - 2 Classifying heterogeneities - 3:  Classifying heterogeneities - 3 Resolving message level heterogeneities:  Resolving message level heterogeneities State of the art solution: Service to service mappings Proposed by most enterprise integration solutions Alternate solution: Mapping to a domain semantic model and re-use those to interoperate between services Our approach Contributions Comprehensive, practical approach to resolve message / data level heterogeneities Solution borrows from the field of schema/data integration in federated databases A data mediation architecture using extensible elements of WSDL and Axis 2 Our approach:  Our approach Leverages the semantic annotation framework provided by WSDL-S to create data mappings WSDL-S Semantics in the entire life cycle of Web services Evolutionary and compatible upgrade of existing Web services standards WSDL Externalize the semantic domain models - agnostic to ontology representation languages. W3C member submission Semantic Annotations for Web Services Description Language Working Group - SAWSDL http://www.w3.org/2002/ws/sawsdl/ WSDL-S:  WSDL-S Annotating message types (XSD complex types and elements) extension attribute : modelReference (semantic association) extension attribute : schemaMapping (schema/data mapping) Annotating operations extension elements : precondition and effect (child elements of the operation element) extension attribute : category (on the interface element) extension element : action (under consideration) (on operation element) PurchaseOrder.wsdls:  ………… andlt;xs:element name= 'processPurchaseOrderResponse' type='xs:string wssem:modelReference='POOntology#OrderConfirmation'/andgt; andlt;/xs:schemaandgt; andlt;/typesandgt; andlt;interface name='PurchaseOrder'andgt; andlt;wssem:category name= 'Electronics' taxonomyURI=http://www.naics.com/ taxonomyCode='443112' /andgt; andlt;operation name='processPurchaseOrder' pattern=wsdl:in-outandgt; andlt;input messageLabel = 'processPurchaseOrderRequest' element='tns:processPurchaseOrderRequest'/andgt; andlt;output messageLabel ='processPurchaseOrderResponse' element='processPurchaseOrderResponse'/andgt; andlt;!—Precondition and effect are added as extensible elements on an operationandgt; andlt;wssem:precondition name='ExistingAcctPrecond' wssem:modelReference='POOntology#AccountExists'andgt; andlt;wssem:effect name='ItemReservedEffect' wssem:modelReference='POOntology#ItemReserved'/andgt; andlt;/operationandgt; andlt;/interfaceandgt; PurchaseOrder.wsdls Annotating Message elements:  Annotating Message elements andlt;wsdl:typesandgt; (...) andlt;complexType name='Address'andgt; andlt;sequenceandgt; andlt;element name='StreetAd1' type='xsd:string'/andgt; andlt;element name='StreetAd2' type='xsd:string'/andgt; ........... andlt;/sequenceandgt; andlt;/complexTypeandgt; (...) andlt;/wsdl:typesandgt; Address StreetAddress xsd:string xsd:string OWL ontology hasCity hasStreetAddress hasZip WSDL complex type element modelReference to establish a semantic association schemaMapping to resolve structural heterogeneities beyond a semantic match semantic match Example Annotation:  Example Annotation andlt;complexType name='POAddress' wssem:modelReference='POOntology#Address' wssem:schemaMapping='http://www.ibm.com/schemaMapping/POAddress.xq#input-doc=doc('POAddress.xml')'andgt; andlt;allandgt; andlt;element name='streetAddr1' type='string' /andgt; andlt;element name='streetAdd2' type='string' /andgt; andlt;element name='poBox' type='string' /andgt; andlt;element name='city' type='string' /andgt; andlt;element name='zipCode' type='string' /andgt; andlt;element name='state' type='string' /andgt; andlt;element name='country' type='string' /andgt; andlt;element name='recipientInstName' type='string' /andgt; andlt;/allandgt; andlt;/complexTypeandgt; Address xsd:string xsd:string xsd:string OWL ontology has_City has_StreetAddress has_Zip WSDL complex type element semantic match andlt;POOntology:has_StreetAddress rdf:datatype='xs:string'andgt; { fn:concat($a/streetAddr1 , ' ', $a/streetAddr2 ) } andlt;/POOntology:has_StreetAddressandgt; Want to know more about WSDL-S ?:  Want to know more about WSDL-S ? W3C submission Web page http://www.w3.org/Submission/WSDL-S/ Project and related tools (annotation tools) http://lsdis.cs.uga.edu/projects/meteor-s/wsdl-s/ Presentation at W3C Workshop on Frameworks for Semantics in Web Services http://lsdis.cs.uga.edu/projects/meteor-s/wsdl-s/WSDL-S.pdf OR Talk to me! Resolving message level heterogeneities using WSDL-S:  Resolving message level heterogeneities using WSDL-S WSDL-S support for data mediation:  WSDL-S support for data mediation User specified mappings from Web service message element to semantic model concept (say OWL Ontology) Upcast : from WS message element to OWL concept Downcast : from OWL concept to WS message element Realizing data mediation:  Realizing data mediation Web services interoperate by re-using these mappings. Ontologies now a vehicle for Web services to resolve message level heterogeneities Data Mediation System Architecture:  Data Mediation System Architecture Focus: Easy incorporation of tooling support for SWS in existing tools Uses extensibility support offered by WSDL and Axis 2 (handlers) Pre-requisites Web services should be described using WSDL-S The upcast and downcast mappings from the Web service message elements to the semantic concepts should be created The Web services must be deployed and the WSDL-S files must be accessible. Axis 2 allows deployment of WSDL-S files. DM Architecture components:  DM Architecture components Part of the METEOR-S Middleware EPR handler – End Point Resolution handler For clients to use the middleware Reroute SOAP messages to middleware DM handler – Data Mediation handler Main component for facilitating data mediation Works with the EPR handler + a mapping processing engine (SAXON for XQuery / XSLT) DM Handler – a closer look:  DM Handler – a closer look Each time a Web service is invoked obtains the 'schemaMapping' functions from WSDL-S locations (using the WSDL-S4J API) performs the up cast and downcast mappings on the incoming SOAP message using a mapping processor/engine (SAXON for XQuery and XSLT) updates the SOAP message. Appropriate Axis handlers then invoke the Web service with the transformed message. Walk through example – WS1 invocation:  Walk through example – WS1 invocation Walk through example – WS2 invocation:  Walk through example – WS2 invocation Evaluation:  Evaluation Discussion:  Discussion Matching and mapping are hard problems That is not what we claim to solve Need for a light weight semantic framework for Web services – WSDL-S Simply extending this to achieve complete actual interoperation Interoperation in a multiple ontology environment Inter ontology matching and mapping Conclusion:  Conclusion Comprehensive solution for resolving message level heterogeneities Extending available semantics to pre-define message level mappings Extending the state of the art Data mediation is a hard problem WSDL-S and this work is an important first step

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