Published on March 26, 2008
Survey of Intelligent Vehicle Applications Worldwide: Survey of Intelligent Vehicle Applications Worldwide Presentation to IEEE April 17, 2001 Richard Bishop Richard Bishop Consulting www.ivsource.net IV Activity is Ramping Up: IV Activity is Ramping Up Telematics is exploding “Information Layer” -- in-vehicle information Driver Assistance systems entering market “Control Layer” -- helps driver drive more safely, productively, efficiently Long term R&D in Advanced Driver Assistance & Automated Driving ongoing IV Activity Worldwide: The Players: IV Activity Worldwide: The Players Automotive / truck OEMs and suppliers worldwide Publicly-funded programs in Asia, Europe, North America IV Players Worldwide: Americas : IV Players Worldwide: Americas USDOT Intelligent Vehicle Initiative Federal Transit Administration Bus Rapid Transit program USDOD: autonomous military vehicles University research: California PATH, U. of Minnesota, Ohio State University IV Players Worldwide: Asia: IV Players Worldwide: Asia Japan Ministries of Construction, Transportation, International Trade & Industry Advanced Cruise-Assist Research Association (AHSRA) Korea: Korea Highway Corporation and Korea University Singapore -- advanced transit concepts Industrial automation in Australia IV Players Worldwide: Europe: IV Players Worldwide: Europe Europe European Commission projects 5th Framework Research Program Projects include public and private sector participants from major countries National level programs in France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, UK Driver Assistance Systems: Driver Assistance Systems Night Vision Adaptive Cruise Control Collision Warning Collision Avoidance Driver Impairment Monitoring Advanced Driver Assistance Cooperative Infrastructure Automated Driving Driver Assistance Systems:Night Vision: Driver Assistance Systems: Night Vision Driver Assistance Systems: Adaptive Cruise Control: Driver Assistance Systems: Adaptive Cruise Control ACC: Foot-free driving Now on the market for $1500-2000 Trucks: US (2000) Cars: Japan (1997), Europe (1999), US (2000) Arizona considering opening HOV lanes to Intelligent Vehicles, to incentivize public to adopt systems Driver Assistance Systems: Adaptive Cruise Control: Driver Assistance Systems: Adaptive Cruise Control Next generation: stop-n-go traffic operation intelligent infrastructure sensing external factors and communicating to vehicle ACC now beginning international standards process Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Heavy Trucks: Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Heavy Trucks Heavy trucks are where the market action is Roughly 50,000 heavy trucks equipped with Eaton-Vorad radar-based system covers forward zone and right blind spot selling “thousands” per year accident reductions of 50% or greater reported for some fleets Doppler radar (so can’t see stopped vehicles) With road curvature info from internal gyro, radar detection zone is shaped to curve Eaton VORAD: Integrated Adaptive Cruise Control & Collision Warning System: Eaton VORAD: Integrated Adaptive Cruise Control & Collision Warning System Vehicle Closing Rate of 0.25 – 100 MPH (0.4 – 160 km/h) Operating Range of 1 – 350 feet (0.3 – 110 meters) typical Target Azimuth +/- 6 degrees Host Vehicle Speed of 0.5 – 120 MPH (0.8 – 190 km/h) Operating Frequency of Forward & Side Radar –24.725 GHz Transmitted RF Power of 3.0 milliwatts typical Vibration Range of 7 G’s from 10 to 2000 Hz Total System Weight of 7.125 lbs. (3.2 kilograms) (approx.) EMI Susceptibility of 100 volts/meter from 10 KHz to 1 GHz SmartCruise Following Times of 2.25 Sec. To 3.25 Sec. EVT - 300: EVT - 300 Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Heavy Trucks: Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Heavy Trucks Lane departure warning entered heavy truck market in 1999 based on image processing first on Mercedes trucks (Europe), followed by Freightliner (Iteris system) now a factory option from Kenworth (SafeTRAC) suitable for automotive aftermarket Products from Assistware, Iteris, MobilEye Assistware’s Lane Departure Warning System: Assistware’s Lane Departure Warning System Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Transit Buses: Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Transit Buses Performance Spec’s in Development Forward Collision Warning: San Mateo (Ca.) transit system with Calif. PATH Rear Impact CW: Ann Arbor Transit with Veridian Lane Change / Merge CW: Pittsburgh Transit (100 buses) with Carnegie Mellon also initial research in Pedestrian Detection / Avoidance Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Automotive (1): Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Automotive (1) Adaptive Cruise Control systems are edging in this direction Ford signed agreement with Iteris for Lane Departure Warning Systems for MY2003 Japan SmartCruise systems CW for forward obstacles/vehicles, road/lane departure, intersections, crossing paths, pedestrians, road condition Systems also take control if driver does not heed warning Major demo held Nov 28 - Dec 1 2000 near Tokyo Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Automotive (2): Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Automotive (2) USDOT-Industry Joint Pre-competitive “Enabling Research” agreement in the works Ford, GM, DaimlerChrysler, Nissan, Toyota & Navigation Technologies Key focus areas: Enhanced digital maps to augment collision warning systems Develop driver workload performance metrics Additional work in test methodologies for CW Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Specialty Vehicles: Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Warning for Specialty Vehicles Magnetic lane marking enables snowplow operations in zero visibility (Ca, Az, Mn) Magnetic lane marking tape and vehicle system commercialized by 3M (Lane Awareness System) Lane Awareness System: Sensor Bar on Snowplow: Lane Awareness System: Sensor Bar on Snowplow Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Avoidance: Driver Assistance Systems: Collision Avoidance Activity in forward CA, vehicle dynamics control, lane departure prevention, ACC w/brake actuation US Infrastructure Consortium looking at intersection collision avoidance techniques NHTSA-GM: $35M cost-shared project: “ACAS” using radar, vision for forward sensing extensive algorithm development, vehicle integration, human factors (warnings), data collection, evaluation naturalistic test with ten Buick LeSabres starts in 2002 Major benefits in congestion relief most of non-recurring congestion due to fender-benders Driver Assistance Systems:Impairment Monitoring: Driver Assistance Systems: Impairment Monitoring Technology exists to monitor driving performance & physiological factors Technology Approaches: Ocular measures -- image processing, eye-tracking Doppler radar illumination of face/body Head movement monitoring using capacitor plates Stereo image processing of eyes/face/head Lane-keeping & steering input patterns Headtrak:Proximity Array Sensing System: Headtrak: Proximity Array Sensing System Advanced Driver Assistance Systems: Advanced Driver Assistance Systems “Co-Pilot” functions will continue to emerge Stop-n-go ACC for congested traffic (~2003) Lane keeping on freeways (~2004) The Killer App: Low Speed Automation! Automated throttle, brakes, steering in tedious stop-n-go traffic being developed in Europe, Japan availability as early as 2005 overseas, 2007 in U.S.?? Automated Driving: Simply a Matter of Time: Automated Driving: Simply a Matter of Time Hands-off, feet-off driving: customers want it Demonstrated in 1997 by National Automated Highway System Consortium Basic system capability exists machine intelligence & machine perception now being refined by researchers (California PATH, Ohio State U., France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea) must transform into an affordable, trustworthy product Bishop prediction: available in 2010 Revolutionary changes in society<>travel Automated Driving:Passenger Cars (1): Automated Driving: Passenger Cars (1) California PATH: work continuing since Demo 97 to refine algorithms, hardware for both cars and heavy trucks California leads the Cooperative Vehicle-Highway Automation Systems pooled fund study with 10 other state DOT’s Mechanical Engineering Lab (Japan): cooperative driving using 5.8 GHz DSRC intervehicle communication, DGPS, machine vision, radar, laser Public demo held Nov. 22-27 near Tokyo Automated Driving:Passenger Cars (2): Automated Driving: Passenger Cars (2) LIVIC: La Route Automatisée program French research labs INRIA, INRETS, LCPC and OEM partners focusing on sensor fusion in CARSENSE Korea University: KAV-5 relies on four cameras to follow road, vehicles University of Parma (Italy): ARGO vision-based autonomous vehicle successfully completed 2000 km tour of Italian roads Automated Driving: Heavy Trucks: Automated Driving: Heavy Trucks CHAUFFEUR program in Europe demonstrated “electronic tow-bar” in 1999 Lead truck closely followed by fully automated second truck Using vehicle-vehicle communication, image processing, active infrared, radar CHAUFFEUR II implementing multiple trucks in platoons and improved image processing Led by DaimlerChrysler with Renault VI, Iveco, Bosch, others as partners Automated Driving:Transit Buses: Automated Driving: Transit Buses Bus Rapid Transit concept seeks to combine rail-like capacity with flexibility of buses Exclusive lane operation in urban areas sometimes requires narrow lanes and lateral guidance Guided bus systems being implemented in France, Netherlands, UK, USA Toyota: Intelligent Multimodal Transit System fully automated, using platooning techniques Expect advanced electronically guided bus systems in operation by 2002 People-movers: free ranging systems open up new possibilities for parking shuttles, urban centers Automated Driving:Demo 2002: Automated Driving: Demo 2002 California DOT taking a lead role to stimulate the implementation of automated vehicles -- key to congestion relief sees trucks / buses as precursor to cars Caltrans sponsoring Demo 2002 Trucks in electronic towbar convoys “Bus trains” California PATH leading development Automated Vehicles:Military / Industrial: Automated Vehicles: Military / Industrial USDOD sponsoring $50 Demo III project autonomous unmanned scout vehicles off-road operation at 20 mph on-road operation at 40 mph using extensive sensor suite: MMW radar, foliage penetrating radar, laser scanner, FLIR, monochrome and color vision, stereo vision Four vehicle undergoing rugged testing “with the troops” in October 2000 Automated Vehicles:Military / Industrial: Automated Vehicles: Military / Industrial Port automation: automated freight container movement (Rotterdam) Autonomous mining vehicles Australian Centre for Field Robotics strip mining underground mining Unmanned mine haulers Summary: Summary There’s a lot going on! …. A diverse array of activity for all vehicle types Look for increasingly intelligent vehicles to move most rapidly into commercial vehicle markets -- “business-centered systems” where the intelligence enhances the bottom line Look for consumers to become increasingly comfortable with driver aids and demand more relief from the tedium of driving ….and look for the technology to deliver. Resources / Events: Resources / Events www.IVsource.net updates and reporting on developments in Intelligent Vehicles this presentation will be posted there ITS America Annual Meeting June 3-7 in Miami Beach www.itsa.org ITS World Congress Sept.30 - Oct 4, Sydney www.itsa.org Slide37: Thank you.