IJOER-JAN-2016-30

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Published on January 31, 2016

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slide 1: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN - 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-1 January- 2016 Page | 108 Impact of texturing/cooling by Instant controlled pressure drop DIC on pressing and/or solvent extraction of vegetal oil Kamel BOUALLEGUE 1 Tamara ALLAF 2 Cuong NGUYEN VAN 3 Rached BEN YOUNES 4 Karim ALLAF 5 135 University of La Rochelle Intensification of Transfer Phenomena on Industrial Eco-Processes Laboratory of Engineering Science for Environment LaSIE - UMR-CNRS 7356 17042 La Rochelle France Phone: +33685816912 14 Gafsa University Research unit of physics computers science and mathematics Faculty of Science University of Gafsa Tunisia 2 ABCAR-DIC Process 17000 La Rochelle France 3 CanTho University College of Technology Street 3/2 Cantho City Vietnam. Abstract — Instant controlled pressure drop process DIC was used as a texturing pretreatment in order to recover the highest part of oil content of various oleaginous materials such as jatrophacurcas rapeseeds camelina seeds and date seeds at 5 to 6 dry basis water content. Pressing and n-hexane 95 solvent extraction of oil from both DIC-textured and non- treated raw material RM seeds was achieved using separately ASE Accelerated Solvent Extraction at high pressure and temperatureand short time for quantifying the oil content and conventional industrial solvent extraction of 2-hour Dynamic Maceration DM extraction at 68 o Cto establish extraction kinetics and practical yields. Whatever the extraction process and the oilseed species were optimized DIC treatment allowed increasing oil yields and extraction kinetics whilst perfectly preserving oil quality. It was possible to perform comparative studies and to optimize DIC treatment based on oil extraction yields. DIC treatment performed at 0.63 MPa between 45 and 105 s depending on oleaginous varieties allowed getting much higher oil yields: 96.4 instead of 81 92.6 instead of 76 93.4 instead of 86.3 and 79 instead of 63 of oil contents from rapeseeds camelina seeds Jatropha and date seeds respectively. Besides in terms of fatty acid composition instant cooling via DICenabled the preservation of the oil lipid profile. Keywords — Instant controlled pressures drop DIC Solvent extraction Oil pressing oil seeds solvent extraction Fatty acids. I. INTRODUCTION Rapeseed is one of the most important oil seeds which contains an oil quantity between 40 and 55 wt wt. The composition is as follows: triglycerides 97-99 wt wt fatty acids 0.5–2 wt wt and minor lipids 0.5–1 wt wt1. Rapeseed contains oil fatty acids proteins water cellulose and mineral elements. Rapeseed oil mainly contains unsaturated fatty acid. The main fatty acid composition of rapeseed oil is palmitic acid C16:0 3.49 stearic acid C18:0 0.85 oleic acid C18:1 64.4 and linoleic acid C18:2 22.3 linolenic acid C18:3 8.23 and other fatty acids 3 2.The production of rapeseed oil has been highly developed over many years for commercial use. Conventional processes employ both mechanical and/or solvent extraction methods. Indeed the most popular method is seed pressing followed by meal solvent extraction. The ever-growing demand of vegetable oils has resulted in intensive work within the food industry the oleo-chemistry industry and regarding environmental concerns. Oils are the highest energy source between the three basic food compounds carbohydrates proteins and fats. They also are good carriers of oil soluble vitamins and many fatty acids essential for health and that are not produced by the human body 3. To find different lipid resources of vegetable oils efforts have been focused on producing oil from annual plants grown in relatively temperate climates and triggered from seeds. Oleaginous oil production is of great interest in terms of quality titer production rate and yield. The world production of oilseeds is steadily increasing since 1970. In terms of the most prominent oils there was a production increase of 12 per year between 1979 and 2007 representing about 178 Mt/year of oil in 2015. This growth of oil production required an increase of seed harvested. Hence the production of oilseeds followed a meaningful progression slide 2: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN - 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-1 January- 2016 Page | 109 from 240 Mt in 1979 to 488 Mt in 1999 +203 reaching 672 Mt in 2007 and about 530 Mt/year during the period of 2012/2015 4. Despite the vast range of vegetable oil sources world consumption is dominated by palm soybean sunflower and rapeseed oils with 38.1 35.7 18.2 and 17.8 million tons consumed per year respectively 5. The increase of seed cultivation being slightly lower than the increase in oil production illustrates an improvement of oil extraction processes. However various methods for recovering seed oil keep including mechanical pressing and solvent extraction processes. These last ways use organic solvents such as hexane. Compared to hexane extraction pressing has a lower efficiency and can recover only between 70 to 80 depending on the seed species. However despite numerous thermal and mechanical pre-treatment operations such as cooking and flacking conventional solvent extraction is highly time consuming and leads to yields not exceeding 95. The natural structure of oleaginous and the specific properties of cell walls are responsible of such low technological behavior regarding both pressing and hexane extraction processes. It is noted that cooking at about 80-100 ºC for 20-40 minutes implies an increase of yields and/or kinetics generated by thermal deterioration of cells.. However because of the temperature level and heating time such an operation similarly triggers oil degradation. Some mechanical treatments such as flacking and/or grinding recovery processes can also improve the technological aptitudes of oilseeds. Several cell wall degrading enzymes during aqueous extraction were studied at laboratory scale at ambient temperature..They manage to obtain a maximum yield of 86 of total oil content of the seed. Nevertheless combinations of proteases with hemicellulases and/or cellulases did not further increase the extraction yield6. Thus the enzyme-supported aqueous extraction offers a nontoxic alternative to common oil extraction methods with reasonable yields. Energy needed to remove water from residual meals is too high and since enzymatic reactions are time consuming this operation of enzyme-supported aqueous extraction remains confined to laboratory scale. At present the industrial processes used for the extraction of seed oils typically involve steps of coking flacking grinding solvent extraction preferably hexane desolventation of both oil and residual meal. In numerous industries the combination of initial pressing step together with hexane solvent extraction of residual meal leads to the highest conventional yields reaching about 95. Thus industrial oil extraction from oleaginous seeds is commonly realized through mechanical pressing which gives good-quality oils containing anthocyanins. The residual meal oil after press is usually extracted afterwards by solvent extraction usually using hexane or supercritical fluid with conventional Dynamic Maceration DM. It is worth noting that the other solvent extraction process of Accelerated Solvent Extraction ASE is usually only performed at laboratory scale in order to thoroughly determine the oil content of the concerned seeds. Mechanical and thermal pre-treatments preceding these operations contribute to enhance their performances and can be identified as intensification ways in terms of process performances. Nevertheless the oil quality is not preserved. Hence consumer requirements usually imply the use of oil extraction by cold press although its oil extraction yield is low and its nutritional content is lower than what obtained with solvent extraction. In the present study to overcome these issues and in order to increase oil extraction yield of both cold pressing and solvent extraction while preserving the oil quality we sought new texturing pretreatment way. We hence based our work on the swelling which is a thermo-mechanical operation issued from the well-known process of Instant Controlled Pressure Drop DIC Détente Instantanée Contrôlée 7 8. It is performed by establishing saturated steam pressure up to 1 MPa for some dozens of seconds and instantaneously dropping both pressure and temperature towards a vacuum of 5 kPa and 30 ºC respectively. In these treatment conditions four different oleaginous seeds were investigated rapeseeds and camelina seeds which interest is due to their high oil content with healthy properties and Jatropha Curcas and date seeds which were studied in order to generalize the main extraction ways and their intensification. As a specific well-controlled thermo-mechanical treatment DIC technology has been established 9defined patented and developed by Allaf et al. 1993 10. This technique has been applied successfully for industrial drying intensification texturing and decontamination of various biological products 11-14. DIC was successfully applied for extraction of volatile compounds such as essential oils 15 16. It has been also used effectively for improving the extraction of bioactive compounds kinetics through the texturing impact 17. slide 3: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN - 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-1 January- 2016 Page | 110 II. MATERIAL AND METHODS 2.1 Raw materials 2.1.1 Rapeseeds Rapeseed is a plant with large potentials and enormous economic applications that belong to the Brassicaceae or mustard family. It is one of the most important oilseeds which contain the oil quantity between 40 and 55 wt wt. The composition is as follows: triglycerides 97-99 wt wt fatty acids 0.5–2 wt wt and minor lipids 0.5–1 wt wt1. The production of oil from the rapeseeds has been highly developed. The total production of rapeseed plant all around the world was 46.2 Mt in 2005 18. Taking the 5 th place among oilseed crop the production of rapeseed oil in the world was 17.9 Mt in 2005 19. Its oil is classified as one of the healthiest vegetable oils because of its fatty acid composition: triglycerides 97-99 wt fatty acids 0.5–2 wt and minor lipids 0.5–1 wt1. The main characteristics of this oil are its low level of saturated fatty acids 5–10 high amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids 44–75 linoleic acid 18–22 and alpha-linolenic acid 9–13. Therefore the optimal ratio of omega-6 linoleic acid to omega-3 linolenic acid fatty acids 2:1 for human health natively exists in rapeseed oil 20. 2.1.2 Camelina Sativa L. Camelina Sativa L. is an ancient oilseed crop that belongs to the Cruciferae family Brassicaceae Mustard and it is considered to be native to northern Europe the Mediterranean region and Central Asia 21. The revival of interest in Camelina seed is due to the high oil content together which is about 400 g oil/kg dry matter basis db with healthy properties 22 23. In accordance with the high amount of oil content and the healthy quality Camelina seed oil is mostly extracted by mechanical pressing. Solvent extraction possibly combined with initial pressing is done in the case of some studies. Most often this combination is adopted for economic reasons because of the significant amount of residual oil in the pressing oil cake/meal 24. The main compounds of Camelina seed oil were reported in the literature. It shows highly unsaturated fatty acid up to 90 depending on its origin. The main relative compounds of Camelina seed oil are oleic C18:1n−9 12–20 linoleic C18:2n−6 14–24 linolenic acid C18:3n−3 25–42 2.1.3 Jatropha Curcas Jatropha is a genus of over 170 plants from the Euphorbiaceae family Jatropha curcasoil is non-edible native to the Central America South-east Asia India and Africa in the tropical and commonly found and utilized across most of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Among the different species of Jatropha Jatropha curcas has a wide range of uses and promises various significant benefits to human and industry. Extracts from this species have been shown to have anti-tumor activity the seeds can be used in treatment of constipation and the sap was found effective in accelerating wound healing procedure25. Moreover this plant can be used as an ornamental plant raw material for dye potential feed stock pesticide soil enrichment manure and more importantly as an alternative for biodiesel production 25. Jatropha curcas a multipurpose plant contains high amount of oil in its seeds the seed yield is up to 5 tons/ha 26. It has a yield per hectare of over four times as much as soybean and ten times as much as corn. Jatropha seeds contain 37 oil which can be easily expressed for processing 27. The proximate analysis of Jatropha seeds revealed the presence of water crude fat and crude protein atabout 6 47 and 25 respectively27. Jatropha seed oil has about 72 unsaturated fatty acids dominated by oleic acid C18:1 34.3 – 45.8 followed by lenoleic acid C18:229.0 – 44.2 palmitic acid C16:0 14.1 – 15.3 and stearic acid C18:0 3.7 – 9.8. Jatropha curcas seeds were purchased from the farmers in the South of Vietnam while rapeseeds and Camelina Sativa seeds were boughtfromPoitiers and Sanctum méditérranée France. Powder of date seeds was provided from Tunisia. Water content of all these products was about 6 wet basis wb. All of them were stored at room temperature at laboratory before treated by DIC and extraction. The seeds were selected after cleaning and homogenization in terms of water content. Clean seeds were stored at room temperature before DIC treatment and pressing and/or solvent extraction processing. After DIC treatment the samples were dried at room temperature until the initial moisture content was obtained. All of the DIC treated and untreated samples were ground before extraction with average particle size of 0.4 mm measured by a sieve machine FRITSCH with the amplitude 1.5 mm and 10 min of sieving time. The hexane used for extraction was purchased from slide 4: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN - 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-1 January- 2016 Page | 111 Carlo Erba Val de Reuil France. 1 ton of each sample was prepared for pressing and solvent extraction by Dynamic Maceration DM was achieved on the meals. 2.2 Measurement of moisture content Moisture content of ground seed was determined by using oven dry method. A 2-3 g of each sample was placed in a dish and was dried for 24 h at 105 °C with triplicates. An infrared moisture analyzer was also used Mettler Toledo LP-16 Infrared Dryer/Moisture Analyzer with Mettler Toledo PE360 Balance - Bishop International Akron OH – USA. Both obtained results were fairly consistent  0.5 wb. The initial water content of the ground seeds before extraction was 6db. 2.3 DIC process Since DIC treatment is a high temperature short time heating HTST up to 160 °C during some dozens of seconds followed by an instant pressure drop towards a vacuum about 5 kPa in 0.04-0.1 s itcauses an autovaporization and an instant cooling of the product. The pressure drop induces a whole swelling and higher porosity of the product with a possible controlled destruction of cell walls. The thermodynamics of instantaneity can greatly contribute to a phenomenological model of phase separation. 2.3.1 Industrial DIC processing reactor The Industrial DIC processing reactoris composed of three main elements as Figure 1:  The processing reactor where we loadthe productto be treated  The vacuum system which consists of a vacuum tank 5 with a volume 100 times greater than the processing reactor an adequate vacuum pump 6. The initial vacuum level is maintained at about 5 kPa in all the operation.  A pneumatic instantaneous valve 4 that assures an instant connection between the vacuum tank and the processing reactor. This valve can be opened in the very short time less than 0.2 s in order to ensure the abrupt pressure drop P/ t 0.5 MPa/s within the reactor. FIGURE 1: SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE INDUSTRIAL REACTOR DICL0.3-1.0 FOR TREATMENT PER BATCH BUT SEMI- CONTINUOUS FLOW: 30L OF TREATMENT CHAMBER AUTOMATIC INPUT AND OUTPUT OF THE PRODUCT. TREATMENT OF ABOUT 500 KG/H. OF RAPESEED JATROPHA SEEDS CAMELINA AND DATE SEEDS 2.3.2 DIC treatment The treatment is entirely automated hence after the oilseeds are placed in the DIC treatment vessel a first vacuum stage is established in order to reduce the resistance between the exchange surface and the saturated steam. Afterwards a high- pressure steam is injected into the reactor and maintained during the treatment time the pressure and treatment time are parameters that need to be defined beforehand. The thermal treatment is followed by an abrupt pressure drop towards a vacuum. This results in an instant autovaporization inducing an expansion and instant cooling of the solid material. After DIC texturing seeds were recovered and ready for extraction. slide 5: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN - 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-1 January- 2016 Page | 112 2.4 Solvent extraction The study of the effect of texturing by DIC on oil extraction was performed by Accelerated Solvent Extraction ASE to determine the oil content and Dynamic Maceration DM using n-hexane as solvent to measure kinetics and final yields. Before extraction oilseeds were ground by an industrial grinder at a rate of 4000 rpm for 10 s and the average of particle size was 0.4 mm. Date seeds were ground in a heavy-duty grinder National Institute of Arid Zone Degach Tunisia for 3 min and Particle sizes were ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 mm. 2.4.1 Accelerated Solvent Extraction ASE In the present study ASE was a Dionex ASE 350 system Thermo Fisher scientifique Sunnyvale CA USA. After preliminary tests we defined the suitable ASE conditions. Once ASE was set a 7-g sample mixed with 1 g of diatomaceous earth and introduced in a stainless-cell. Usually solvent quantity correspond to 60 of the cell volume. ASE operation begins with a 5-min heating step. The cell should reach a high level of pressure 10.4 MPa to keep the solvent hexane in liquid phase despite its high temperature. ASE process was performed for 5 cycles of 10 min each using 30–40 mL of solvent quantity depending on the particle size. Then cell content was purged by nitrogen for 150 s. The solvent was removed in a rotary vacuum evaporator at 40 °C and oil were drained under a stream of nitrogen and weighted afterwards by analytical balance to finally be stored in a freezer 4 °C for subsequent chemical analyses. The average oilyields were expressed in g oil/kg wb ±0.05 g/kg wb wet basis. 2.4.2 Dynamic Maceration DM A quantity of 200 kg of concerned powder was added to 2 m 3 of n-Hexane. The Dynamic Maceration DM was performed in an extraction batch with stirring. An adequate stirring at 400 rpm assured the homogeneity and the external intensification of the operation. The extraction ratios were measured at different interval times to establish the kinetics. 2.5 Press extraction The screw press machine “OMEGA 20” type “Taby Orebro” Germany was first run for 15 min without seed material but with heating via an electrical resistance-heating ring attached around the press. Then DIC-textured and non-textured samples 300 g were introduced into the hopper that gravimetrically feeds the single Screw Press machine. The screw pushes the seeds to a die located at the end of the cage. Under the effect of compression a part of the seed oil is separated from the residual solid material and leaves in the back through the perforated sleeve. Rapeseed meal outflows at the press end. The performance of the press depends on the design of the screw and the size of the filter. The flow pressure is strongly determined by the diameter of outlet of the die in our case it was 8 mm. Fine particles in the expressed oil were separated by filtration and the filtrate and the cake were collected weighed and stored at 4 °C. The oil content was gravimetrically determined and expressed as weight percentage on wet basis w.. The pressed meals were immediately repackaged in zipper seal polyethylene bags stored at 4 °C until use. 2.6 Gas chromatography analysis A quantity of 30 to 40 mg of oil was prepared to be converted to methyl esters. The fatty acid composition was determined as contents of methyl esters. GC-MS analyses were performed using Agilent 19091S-433 gas chromatography Kyoto Japan. The instrument was equipped as follow: a capillary column HP-5MS 5 Phenyl Methyl Siloxane 30 m x 350 μm x 0.25 μm. The oven temperature increased from 70 to 200 °C at a rate of 5 °C/min and then it was programmed to rise up from 200 to 260 °C at a rate of 2 °C/min to be set at 325 °C for 50 min. The carrier gas was helium and the velocity average was at 37 cm s-1. Injection of 1 μl of the various samples was carried out with a split mode ratio 1:20 and the injector temperature was held at 270 °C. The ionization mode was electron impact EI at 70 eV. The identification of common fatty acids was based on using the NIST98 US National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST Gaithersburg MD USA mass spectral database. III. RESULTS Many studies at laboratory scale were established to identify and quantify the impact of DIC parameters on the extraction oil yield in the cases of various seeds. DIC operating conditions were optimized to obtain the maximum of yields in different considered seeds of rapeseeds camelina seeds jatropha and date seeds 17 2829. slide 6: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN - 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-1 January- 2016 Page | 113 These optimized processing parameters were used on the industrial scale DIC equipment.. The saturated steam pressure P between 0.6 and 0.8 MPa and the heating treatment time t between 35 and 105 s were performed depending on the seeds as shown in the Table 1. Treatment capacity of this industrial scale DIC reactor was established to be about 8 tons/hour. TABLE 1 OPTIMIZED DIC CONDITIONS ADOPTED FOR INDUSTRIAL TREATMENT Seeds DIC treatment P MPa t s Jatropha 0.7 70 Colza1 0.63 77 Colza2 0.63 105 Camelina 0.63 105 Date seeds 0.8 38 3.1 Comparative oil contents The use of ASE Accelerated Solvent Extraction aimed at determining the oil content of each product. The ASE values were systematically ranged from 19 to 21thehighest for DIC textured oilseeds compared to untreated seeds. This fact should be attributed to higher availability of oil within the expanded seeds with ruptured cell walls. Thus we could establish a comparison between the oil content reported in the literature and our results issued from DIC textured date seeds jatropha seeds rapeseeds and Camelina seeds summarized in Table 2. TABLE 2 COMPARISON OF OIL YIELDS W.B. BETWEEN PRESENT EXPERIMENTS AND LITERATURE Seeds Oil content wet basis wb In this research In literature Authors DIC treatment Untreated RM 1. Date seeds 12.3 9.21 8-10 30 2. Jatropha seeds 38 31.74 30-40 27 31 3. Rapeseeds 37.8 31.7 31-34 1 17 4. Camelina seeds 36.3 29.8 27.58 22 23 DIC pretreatment in case of date seeds allowed the smallest particle size powder to get 12.3 wb as ASE yield which was higher than that published byBesbes Blecker 30 who reported it at 8-10 wb. In the case of Jatropha seeds oil yield DIC treatment allowed to get oil yield extraction 38 wb which is the same range than that reported by Parawira 27. In case of rapeseeds and Camelina seeds treated with DIC oil yields were higher than that reported in literature. 3.2 Comparative Industrial Yields By using a mass input of 1 ton seeds of each sample it was possible to perform a comparative study of various extraction operations pressing of untextured RM and DIC-textured seeds 2-h-DM Dynamic Maceration of powdered DIC-textured and untextured raw material combining pressing of oilseeds followed by 2-h-DM of pressing-cake meal for untextured and DIC-textured raw material. The oil yields issued from extraction by solvent pressing and combining both are presented in Error Reference source not found.. The following tables Table 4 Table 5 and Table 6 present the oil composition. By inserting optimized DIC texturing pre-treatment we could increase yields of both solvent extraction here for 2 hours of dynamic maceration DM and for 2 hours of soxhlet extraction and pressing. In the case of pressing followed by DM of meal DIC treatment performed at 0.63 MPa for 105 s allowed getting a total extraction of 96.42 instead of 80.86 for oil colza2 and a total extraction of 92.60 instead of 76 for camelina seeds. slide 7: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN - 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-1 January- 2016 Page | 114 We could also increase yields of solvent extraction here for 2 hours of dynamic maceration DM and for 2 hours of soxhlet extraction in the case of date seeds colza1 and jatropha. TABLE 3 COMPARATIVE INDUSTRIAL YIELDS OF VARIOUS EXTRACTION OPERATIONS IN 1000 KG RAW MATERIAL Wet basis RM1000 kg Oil content kg Untextured raw material RM DIC textured seeds Pressing DM Solvent Pressing DM solvent 1. Date seeds 123 kg / 77 kg / 97 kg Residual oil content in final meal 46 kg 26 kg 2. Jatropha seeds 350 kg / 302 kg / 327 kg Residual oil content in final meal 48 kg 23 kg 3. Rapeseeds 1 392 kg / 206 kg / 315 kg Residual oil content in final meal 86 kg 77 kg 4. Rapeseeds 2: 392 kg / 202 kg / 305 kg Seed pressing 285 kg / 311 kg / Solvent extraction from meals / 32 kg / 67 kg Total extracted oil a 317 kg 378 kg Residual oil content in final meal 75 kg 14 kg 5. Camelina: 370 kg / 171 kg / 278 kg Seed pressing 267 kg / 293 kg / Solvent extraction frommeals / 31 kg / 70 kg Total extracted oil a 298 kg 363 kg Residual oil content in final meal 102 kg 7 kg Total a: Pressing of DIC-textured seeds + solvent extraction of meal cake issued from pressing. DIC treatment performed at 0.63 MPa for 77 s and at 0.7 MPa for 70 s allowed getting a total extraction of 80.35 instead of 52.55 of colza1oil and a total extraction of 93.42 instead of 86.28 for jatropha seeds successively. For date seeds DIC performed at 0.8 MPa for 38 s allowed getting a total extraction of 78.86 instead of 62.60 for non- treated material. DIC treatment triggered higher yields and lower solvent extraction time without any quality degradation of oil. This is worth to be highlighted because of its huge industrial and economic impacts. 3.3 Oil extraction kinetics To identify the kinetics of Solvent Dynamic Maceration DM extraction of oil in date seeds powder rapeseeds Camelina seeds and jatropha seeds powder the points were carried out between 5 min and 120 min. The quantity of extracted oil was identified based on the total weight of the material. DM was used with different particle sizes 0.2–1.4 mm of powder from raw material and DIC textured samples. slide 8: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN - 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-1 January- 2016 Page | 115 FIGURE 2.EXTRACTION KINETICS OF UNTEXTURED AND DIC-TEXTURED DATE SEED OIL. FIGURE 3.EXTRACTION KINETICS OF UNTEXTURED AND DIC-TEXTURED RAPESEEDS OIL. FIGURE 4 EXTRACTION KINETICS OF UNTEXTURED AND DIC-TEXTURED CAMELINA SEEDS OIL YIELD. slide 9: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN - 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-1 January- 2016 Page | 116 FIGURE 5 EXTRACTION KINETICS OF UNTEXTURED AND DIC-TEXTURED JATROPHA SEEDS OIL YIELD. 3.4 Fatty acid composition The fatty acid methyl ester FAMEs composition of rapeseeds oils camelina seed oil and their meals is shown in Table 4 Table 4 and Table 6. The most abundant fatty acids of oilseeds meal and date seeds oil were oleic C18:1 linoleic C18:2 linolenic C18:3 palmitic C16:0 myristic C14:0 and lauric C12:0 acids which together composed about 90-95 of the total fatty acids. TABLE 4 COMPOSITION OF FATTY ACID PROFILE RELATIVE OBTAINED VIA GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY GC FROM RAPESEEDS AND CAMELINA SEEDS SFA: SATURATED FATTY ACIDS MUFA: MONO-UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS PUFA: POLY-UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS Pressing oil from rapeseeds Pressing oil from camelina seeds RM DIC RM DIC C12:0 - 0.62 0.5 0.62 C14:0 0.05 0.34 0.075 0.3 C16:0 5.09 6.94 5.19 6.90 C16:1 0.08 - 0.08 0.8 C18:0 1.86 2.27 1.8 2.2 C18:1 55.97 62.39 17.1 18.5 C18:2 18.18 18.79 18.76 18.89 C18:3 - - 31.2 32.4 C20:0 1.02 1.00 1.5 1.2 C20:1 13.80 7.31 13.8 13.9 C20:2 0.87 0.34 - - C22:0 0.23 - - - C22:1 2.21 - 2.88 1.44 C24:0 0.13 - 2.21 - C24:1 0.51 - 0.13 - SFA 10.24 11.17 11.275 11.22 MUFA 72.57 69.7 33.99 34.64 PUFA 19.05 19.13 49.96 51.29 slide 10: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN - 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-1 January- 2016 Page | 117 TABLE 5 FATTY ACID PROFILE RELATIVE OBTAINED VIA GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY FROM DM RAPESEEDS AND CAMELINA MEALS SFA: SATURATED FATTY ACIDS MUFA: MONO-UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS PUFA: POLY-UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS Colza Meal solvent extracted oil Camelina Meal solvent extracted oil RM DIC RM DIC C12:0 lauric acid 0.08 0.08 0.26 - C14:0 myristic acid - 0.08 0.16 - C16:0palmitic acid 3.21 4.99 4.28 4.02 C16:1 palmitoleic acid 1.19 0.26 0.23 - C18:0stearic acid 1.08 1.57 1.30 1.22 C18:1oleic acid 78.48 80.10 74.89 75.49 C18:2linoleic acid 15.31 12.24 16.64 18.33 C18:3linolenic acid 0.41 0.39 - - C20:0arachidic - - 0.47 - C20:1gondoic acid - - 1.54 - C20:2 Eicosadienoic acid 0.24 0.22 - - C22:0behenic acid - - 0.23 - C22:1erucic acid - 0.07 - 0.94 C24:0lignoceric acid - - - - C24:1 tetracosenoic acid 5.02 7.4 - - SFA 82.88 80.36 7.01 5.24 MUFA 15.31 12.24 76.66 76.71 PUFA 0.08 0.08 16.64 18.33 TABLE 6 FATTY ACID PROFILE RELATIVE OBTAINED VIA GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY FROM DM EXTRACTED OIL OF DATE SEEDS SFA: SATURATED FATTY ACIDS MUFA: MONO-UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS PUFA: POLY-UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS Fatty acid profile relative of seeds date RM F DIC F C8:0 - 0.30 C10:0 - 0.37 C12:0 15.64 23.84 C14:0 7.36 8.78 C16:0 9.65 8.13 C16:1 0.27 - C18:0 3.29 2.56 C18:1 53.14 47.81 C18:2 10.28 7.69 C20:0 0.36 0.31 C22:0 - 0.21 SFA 36.22 44.5 MUFA 53.41 47.81 PUFA 10.28 7.69 slide 11: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN - 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-1 January- 2016 Page | 118 The major fatty acids found in those cultivars for DIC treated and untreated samples were similar with various relative ratios. This similarity in fatty acid profiles of oils issued from RM untreated and DIC textured treated rapeseed and meals powders should reflect the absence of any significant degradation trigged by DIC. Indeed since DIC is a high-temperature short-time process with an abrupt pressure drop towards a vacuum resulting in instant cooling optimized DIC treatment avoids any discernible thermal degradation. IV. CONCLUSION The industrial scale of intensification of oil extraction from various oleaginous was carried out using Instant controlled pressure drop DIC texturing. This technology had the capacity of increasing yields of oil obtained from both pressing more than 10 and Dynamic Maceration with hexane about 12 more. The coupled operation of DIC pressing and solvent extraction of meals shows a great impact and defined the most adequate intensification technology with total oil extraction of DIC textured seeds as 378 instead of 317 and 363 instead of 298 kg/ton of raw material for rapeseeds and Camelina respectively. The higher availability and better kinetics of solvent extraction triggered by DIC were proved by the highest extraction yields obtained with ASE for DIC textured seeds. All these quantitative aspects were systematically coupled with a consequent preservation of the product quality defined through the profiles of fatty acids. Finally compared with cooking and flacking DIC needs about 1 min treatment time and much lower energy consumption. REFERENCES 1 Boutin O. and E. Badens Extraction from oleaginous seeds using supercritical CO2: Experimental design and products quality. Journal of Food Engineering 2009. 924: p. 396-402. 2 Goering C.E. et al. Fuel Properties of Eleven Vegetable Oils. Trans ASAE 1982. 25: p. 1472-1483. 3 Obrien R.D. Fats and oils: formulating and processing for applications. 2008: CRC press. 4 Savoire R. J.-L. Lanoisellé and E. Vorobiev Mechanical continuous oil expression from oilseeds: a review. Food and Bioprocess Technology 2013. 61: p. 1-16. 5 Ixtaina V.Y. et al. Characterization of chia seed oils obtained by pressing and solvent extraction. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 2011. 242: p. 166-174. 6 Winkler E. et al. Enzyme-Supported Oil Extraction from Jatropha curcas Seeds in Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals B. Davison C. Wyman and M. Finkelstein Editors. 1997 Humana Press. p. 449-456. 7 Allaf T. et al. Impact of instant controlled pressure drop pre-treatment on solvent extraction of edible oil from rapeseed seeds.OCL 2014. 213: p. A301. 8 Rezzoug S. et al. présentation du séchage couple a la texturation par détente instantanée contrôlée. application aux produits agro- alimentaires en morceaux. Proceedings of the 10èmes Rencontres Scientifiques et technologiques des Industries Alimentaires. AGORAL. Lavoisier Eds. Paris 1998: p. 319-324. 9 Allaf T. et al. Thermal and mechanical intensification of essential oil extraction from orange peel via instant autovaporization.Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification 2013. 720: p. 24-30. 10 Allaf K. et al. Procédé de traitement de produits biologiques en vue de la modification de leur texture installations pour la mise en ouvre d’un tel procédé et produits ainsi réalisés in Brevet français issu de la demande n° FR 9309720 du 6 août 1993. Extension internationale n° PCT/FR94/00975. 1993. 11 Haddad M.A. et al. Fruits and Vegetables Drying Combining Hot Air DIC Technology and Microwaves. International Journal of Food Engineering 2008. 46. 12 Louka N. and K. Allaf New process for texturing partially dehydrated biological products using Controlled Sudden Decompression to the vacuum. Application on potatoes. Journal of Food Science 2002. 67: p. 3033-3038. 13 Cong D.T. Etude de l’application du procédé hydro-thermique dans le traitement de différents types de riz : procédé d’étuvage et micro-expansion par détente instantanée contrôlée et impact sur les propriétés fonctionnelles in Génie des Procédés. 2003 Université de La Rochelle. 14 Allaf T. and K. Allaf Instant Controlled Pressure Drop D.I.C. in Food Processing. Food Engineering Series. 2014 New York: Springer. 15 Kristiawan M. V. Sobolik and K. Allaf. Etude comparative d’extraction de l’huile essentielle des fleurs d’ylang-ylang. in Proceedings 16èmes rencontres scientifiques et technologiques des industries alimentaires et biologiques - AGORAL. Montpellier France. 2004. AGORAL - Montpellier France. 16 Besombes C. et al. The Instantaneous Controlled Pressure Drop DIC for the Extraction of Essential Oils from: Oregano and Jasmine. Proceedings 38th International Symposium on Essential Oils. Graz Autriche 2007: p. 44. 17 Cuong N.V. B. Colette and K. Allaf Impact de la texturation par détente instantanée contrôlée DIC sur la cinétique d’extraction d’huile de colza et de Jatropha. 1er Colloque International Maîtrise de l’Energie Applications des Energies Renouvelables CIE’09 Tozeur-Tunisie 2009. 18 Prakash A. and M. Stigler FAO Statistical Yearbook. Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations 2012. slide 12: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN - 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-1 January- 2016 Page | 119 19 Ucar S. and A.R. Ozkan Characterization of products from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake. Bioresource Technology 2008. 9918: p. 8771-8776. 20 Fernández M.B. et al. Kinetic study of canola oil and tocopherol extraction: Parameter comparison of nonlinear models. Journal of Food Engineering 2012. 1114: p. 682-689. 21 Hurtaud C. and J.L. Peyraud Effects of Feeding Camelina Seeds or Meal on Milk Fatty Acid Composition and Butter Spreadability. Journal of Dairy Science 2007. 9011: p. 5134-5145. 22 Budin J. W. Breene and D. Putnam Some compositional properties of camelina camelina sativa L. Crantz seeds and oils. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 1995. 723: p. 309-315. 23 Li N. et al. Isolation and characterization of protein fractions isolated from camelina meal. Transactions of the ASABE 2014. 571: p. 169-178. 24 Gunstone F.D. Vegetable sources of lipids in Modifying lipids for use in food F.D. Gunstone Editor. 2006. 25 Sayyar S. et al. Extraction of oil from Jatropha seeds-optimization and kinetics. American Journal of Applied Sciences 2009. 67: p. 1390. 26 Heller J. Physic nut Jatropha Curas L. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute 1996. ISBN 92-9043-278-0. 27 Parawira W. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: A review. Scientific Research and Essays 2010. 514: p. 1796-1808. 28 Bouallegue K. et al. Phenomenological Modeling and Intensification of Texturing/Grinding-assisted Solvent Oil Extraction Case of Date Seeds Phoenix Dactylifera L..Arabian Journal of Chemistry 0. 29 Van C.N. Maîtrise de laptitude technologique des oléagineux par modification structurelle: applications aux opérations dextraction et de transestérification in-situ. 2010 Université de La Rochelle. 30 Besbes S. et al. Quality Characteristics and Oxidative Stability of Date Seed Oil During Storage. Food Science and Technology International 2004. 105: p. 333-338. 31 Mahanta N. A. Gupta and S. Khare Production of protease and lipase by solvent tolerant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PseA in solid- state fermentation using Jatropha curcas seed cake as substrate. Bioresource technology 2008. 996: p. 1729-1735.

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