IJOER-MAY-2016-40

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slide 1: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-5 May- 2016 Page | 240 Application of fermented aquatic weeds in formulated diet of climbing perch Anabas testudineus Junius Akbar 1 Arthur Mangalik 2 Syachradjad Fran 3 Departement of Aquaculture Faculty of Fisheries and Marine University of Lambung Mangkurat Banjarbaru Indonesia Tel: 0511 4772124. Corresponding author: junius.akbaryahoo.com Abstract — Feed is the element that really support the activities of aquaculture there for the feed that is available must be adequate and meet the needs of the fish. The purpose of this research was to evaluate effect aquatic weed flour addition that have been fermented in artificial feed to growth performance and feed efficiency of climbing perch. The experimental method with Completely Randomized Design were used in this study. Nine treatments with three replication were tested namely Feed A A. niger-Savinia molesta Feed B A. niger-Pistia stratiotes Feed C A. niger-Lemna minor Feed D R. oryzae- Salvinia molesta Feed E R.oryzae-Pistia stratiotes Feed F R.oryzae-Lemna minor Feed G S.cerrevisiae-Salvinia molesta Feed H S.cerrevisiae-Pistia stratiotes and Feed I S.cerrevisiae-Lemna minor. The experimental fish was reared in bucket plastic vol 20 L at stocking density of 10 fish in each bucket. The fish fed at ration of 5 body weight per day. The results showed that the highest absolute growth and specific growth rate were found at treatment Feed F 17.38 g and 221.97 respectively. The higher feed convertion ratio FCR and feed efficiency were found at treatment Feed I. Based on the absolute growth specific growth feed convertion ratio and feed efficiency climbing perch fry required R. Oryzae- Lemna minor in feed formulation. It was concluded that R oryzae-Lemna minor as feed for climbing perch. Keywords — Fermented feed climbing perch Anabas testudineus aquatic weed A. niger R. oryzae and S. cerrevisiae I. INTRODUCTION Climbing perch Anabas testudineus or locally known as is betok is a freshwater fish species that possess a labyrinth organ which allows th fish to breathe at mospheric oxygen Hughes Singh 1970a 1970b. This species is commonly found in swamps marsh lands lakes canals ponds rice field pools small pits and estuaries Rahman Marimuthu 2010 Akbar et al 2011. This fish is widely distributed include India the Indochina Peninsula Southern China Taiwan the Philippines and Indonesia Morioka et al 2009. Climbing perch is one of freshwater fish that have the potential to be cultured Muchlisin 2013 and it has a reasonable price in local and international markets. This species has been initially cultured by local people in South Kalimantan Indonesia. The cultured fish fed commercial diet causes high production costs due to high feed price in the local market Akbar et al 2011 this is because most of the materials of the feed is fishmeal that costly. Therefore many efforts are continuously being made to find other alternative protein sources which are cheap available and good nutritional value as substitutes for fish meal. The alternative raw materials that can be evaluated were aquatic weeds. In South Kalimantan Province Indonesia with tropical climate aquatic weed are plentiful diversified and available. The are widely researched and used as food for livestock husbandry but limited for aquaculture Chowdhury et al 2008 Tavares et al 2010 Talukdar et al 2012 Mishra 2013. Therefore study on potential utilization of aquatic weed in fish culture is necessary which will be very useful for extension work to help fish farmers make the most of availably cheap ingredients and increase their income through fish culture. Among variety of aquatic weeds Salvinia molesta Pistia stratiotes and Lemna minor which are abundant in ponds gardens etc and have good nutritional value were chosen for this study. For example Salvinia molesta has been 159 protein and 168 fiber Warasto et al 2013. Lemna minor contain up to 18- 43 protein by dry weight and can be used without further processing as a complete feed for fish. Compared with most other plants Lemna minor contain little fiber Chowdhury et al 2008 Tavares et al 2010. Lemna minor as a natural biofilter in aquaculture system Mutaz Tharwat 2012. Aquatic weed potentially used as a fish feed but the utilization of aquatic weed as a feed constrained in the high fiber. However the nutrition compositions of the aquatic weed can be increased by fermentation process with using fungi Rhyzopus oryzae Achi 2005 yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Achi 2005 Salnur et al 2009 Ozorio et al 2012 and Aspergillus niger Palinggi et al 2008. Nurfadillah et al 2011 flour Azzola pinata fermented in two days of using Trichoderma harzianum lowering crude fiber 37.19 and increasing crude protein 38.65. Sitohang et al 2012 fermentation ricemeal with Saccharomyces cerevisiae for two days can be lowered crude fiber 1743. slide 2: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-5 May- 2016 Page | 241 Therefore it was crucial to explore the alternative materials for climbing perch diet to overcome this problem and the alternative raw materials that can be evaluated were aquatic weeds Salvinia molesta Pistia stratiotes and Lemna minor. II. MATERIALS AND METHODS The method experimental method with Completely Randomized Design was used this study. There was nine treatments and every treatment has three replications. The experimental feed was consisted of nine different composition of raw materials which labelled as A B C D E F G H and I. The Feed A was used A. niger to ferment Salvinia molesta A. niger- Salvinia molesta Feed B A. niger-Pistia stratiotes Feed C A. niger-Lemna minor Feed D R. oryzae-Salvinia molesta Feed E R. oryzae-Pistia stratiotes Feed F R. oryzae-Lemna minor Feed G S. cerevisiae-Salvinia molesta Feed H S. cerevisiae-Pistia stratiotes and Feed I S. cerevisiae-Lemna minor. The fermentation was conducted for three days at room temperature using the inoculums 10 w/v at optimum age. The fermentation product was mixed with otheringredients Table 1. The Ingredients were mixed in a mixer with the resulting dough being extruded through a pelleting machine to produce 1-1.5 mm diameter pellets Muchlisin et al 2006. TABLE 1 THE COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL DIET OF CLIMBING PERCH A. TESTUDENEUS No Ingredient Composition A B C 1 Lemna minor 20 2 Salvinia molesta 20 3 Pistia stratiotes 20 4 Kacang negara meal 18 18 18 5 Fish meal 30 30 30 6 Palm cake 8.5 8.5 8.5 7 Vitamin mix 1.5 15 1.5 8 Mineral mix 1 2 2 2 9 Wheat flour 19.5 19.5 19.5 10 CMC 0.5 0.5 0.5 Total 100 100 100 Remarks: Mineral mix non P of contain g kg -1 dry feed: NaCl 0.5 MgSO 4 .7H 2 O 7.5 KCl 17.53 Fecitrat 1.25 CaCl 2 .2H 2 O 13.34 filler 30.5 and trace element mix 0.5g provided: ZnSO 4 .7H 2 O 17.365 MnSO 4 8.1 CuSO 4 .5H 2 O 1.55 KIO 3 0.15 and filler 30.5 g kg -1 . The climbing perch fry 6-8 g were reared in plastic bucket vol. 20 L at stocking density of 10 fishes in each bucket. The fish fed at ration of 5 body weight per twice daily 8:00-9:00 and 17:00-18:00 for 56 days. The sampling was done two weeks interval to record weight and lengt gain Data were subjected to one way analysis of variance ANOVA followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. III. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS 3.1 Survival growth feed convertion ratio and feed efficiency TABLE 2 THE SURVIVAL RATE SR ABSOLUTE GROWTH AG SPECIFIC GROWTH RATE SGR FEED CONVERTION RATIO FCR AND FEED EFFICIENCY FE OF CLIMBING PERCH AFTER 56 DAYS OF CULTURE. Treatment SR AG g SGR FCR FE A 100 8.41 a 113.96 a 2.79 a 35.84 a B 100 10.35 a 134.07 a 2.85 a 35.14 a C 100 09.07 a 138.68 a 2.80 a 35.74 a D 100 08.68 a 110.71 a 3.45 a 29.00 a E 100 14.64 a 183.69 a 2.22 a 45.04 a F 100 17.38 a 221.97 a 2.10 a 47.53 a G 100 14.41 a 182.64 a 2.40 a 41.72 a H 100 15.98 a 183.26 a 2.01 a 49.63 a I 100 17.04 a 218.74 a 1.81 b 55.11 a Different superscript in the same column indicate significant amongst treatments p0.05 slide 3: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-5 May- 2016 Page | 242 3.2 Water quality parameter The water quality parameter such as water temperature dissolved oxygen DO pH and ammonia NH 3 were monitored initial and final the experimental period. The ranges were: temperature 26-28.4 0 C DO 3.0-3.9 mg L -1 CO 2 1.54-2.1 mg L -1 pH 6.8-7.8 and NH 3 0.02-1.98 mg L -1 . IV. DISCUSSION The results showed that the absolute growth was ranged between 8.41 g to 17.38 g specific growth rate was ranged between 110.71 to 221.97 feed conversion ratio 1.81-3.45 and feed efficiency 29.74-55.11. The Anova test revealed that differences in the composition of aquatic weed in the diet was not significantly affect growth performance feed conversion feed efficiency and survival rate P0.05. However the best growth performance was found at treatment F R. oryzae- Lemna minor with the absolute growth of 17.38 g specific growth rate of 221.97 these values were not different significantly with other treatments Table 2. However the best feed conversion and feed efficiency were found at treatment I S. cerevisiae-Lemna minor where the feed conversion at experiment I was different significantly with other treatments but the feed efficiantly was not different among the treatment Table 2. After 56 days of cultured period the survival rate of climbing perch were 100. Feed consumption growth and feed efficiency of fish are normally governed by a few environmental factors. Environmental parameters exert an immense influence on the maintenance of a healthy aquatic environment and production of food organism. In the present study the water quality parameters were found to be within the acceptable level for fish culture. Recommendation for water quality usually specifies dissolved oxygen DO greater than 3 mg L -1 Hossain et al 2012. In the present study the range of DO was 3.0-3.9 mg L -1 . Ammonia concentration is also an important growth affecting factor. Ammonia fluctuated within the range of 002-1.98 mg L -1 . The pH is more suitable for fish culture. According to Swingle 1967 and Boyd 2000 pH ranging from 6.5-9.0 is suitable for pond fish culture. The pH values obtained in the present study 6.8-7.8 fell within this suitable range. The range of temperature DO pH and NH 3 in the experimental were within the acceptable range for survival and growth of climbing perch. This results is similar to the report of several authors who have demonstrated the use of Lemna minor as a partial replacement for fishmeal in the diet and other animals. Fasakin et al 2001 reported the use of duckweed Spirodella polyrrhiza in the diet of the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. They stated that fish fed duckweed based diet had higher growth rates than fish fed diet containing water fernmeals. The authors indicated the possibility of partial replacement of fishmeal with duckweed in the diet of Nile Tilapia. Shireman et al 1978 reported that grass carp performance on a duckweed diet was superior to fish maintained on catfish chow. Robinette et al 1980 fed channel catfish on prepared diet consisting of 20 dry duckweed the weight gain food conversion and energy use were equal to central diets a standard catfish feed. The production was significantly higher in ponds with supply of duckweed than that of the ponds without supply of duckweed in monoculture of tilapia Chowdhury et al 2008 and polyculture system Kabir et al 2009 Talukdar et al 2012. Influence of duckweed on production of fish is positively significant indicated that duckweed might be used as preferable feed items for fishes in mono-polyculture. Yilmaz et al 2004 reported no significant difference between the growth performance of fish that were fed diets containing up to 20 duckweed and fish that were fed the control diet while carcass lipid and carcass protein also increased except for the diet with 15 duckweed meal in the common carp Cyprinus carpio fry. These authors concluded that a diet containing up to 20 duckweed could be used as a complete replacement of fishmeal for commercial feed in the formulation for common carp fry. V. CONCLUSION The research shows that the utilizing of the fermented feed on the climbing perch had the positive effect. Base on results of this experiment it concluded that using fermented feed R. oryzae-Lemna minor and fermented feed S. cerevisiae-Lemna minor which can be recommended for the culture of climbing perch. slide 4: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-5 May- 2016 Page | 243 REFERENCES 1 Achi O.K. 2005. The potential for upgrading traditional fermented foods through biotechnology. African Journal of Biotechnology. Vol. 4 5 pp. 375-380 May 2005. 2 Akbar Junius M. Adriani and S. Aisiah. 2011.The effect of contain chromium Cr +3 at various levels of salinity on the growth of climbing perch Anabas testudineus. Bionatura Journal of Life and Physical Sciences. Vol 13 No 3 November 2011. 248-254. 3 Boyd C.E. 2000. Water Quality: An Introduction. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 330 p. 4 Chowdhury M.M.R Shahjahan M Rahman M.S and Sadiqul Islam M. 2008. Duckweed Lemna minor as supplementary feed in monoculture of nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 31: 54-59. 5 Hasan M A.K. Shakur Ahammad and Md. Mukhlesur Rahman Khan. 2010. A preliminary investigation into production of Thai Koi Anabas testudineus reared in nylon hapas in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Research Publication Journal. Vol 4 Issue 1 Page: 15-23 May-June 2010. 6 Hossain M.A Z. Sultana A.S.M. Kibria and K.M. Azimuddin. 2012. Optimum dietary protein requirement of a Thai strain of climbing perch Anabas testudineus Bloch 1792 fry. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 12: 1-8 2012 7 Hughes G.M and B.N Singh. 1970a. Respiration in an air-breathing fish the climbing perch Anabas testudineus. I. Oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide release into air and water. J. Exp. Biol. 1970 53 265-280. 8 Hughes G.M and B.N Singh. 1970b. Respiration in an air-breathing fish the climbing perch Anabas testudineus. II. Respiratory patterns and the control of breathing. J. Exp. Biol. 1970 53 281-298. 9 Kabir A.N.M.A M.A. Hossain and M.S. Rahman. 2009. Use of duckweed as feed for fishes in polyculture. J. Agric Rural Dev. 71 2 157-160 June 2009. 10 Mishra Binodini. 2013. Effect of azolla supplementation in the fish feed on the growth of climbing perch Anabas testudineus. American International Journal of Research in Science Technology Engineering Mathematics AIJRSTEM. 41 September- November 2013 pp. 22-24. 11 Morioka S S. Ito and S. Kitamura. 2009. Growth and morphological development of laboratory-reared larval and juvenile climbing perch Anabas testudineus. Ichthyol Res. 2009 56: 162-171. 12 Muchlisin Z. A. 2013 Potency of freshwater fishes in Aceh waters as a basis for aquaculture development programs. Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia. 131: 91-96. 13 Muchlisin Z. A Hashim R and Chong A. S. C. 2006 Short communication: Influences of dietary protein levels on several reproductive parameters in bagrid catfish Mystus nemurus female broodstock. Aquaculture Research. 37: 416-418 14 Mutaz A. Al Qutob and Tharwat S. Nashashibi. 2012. Duckweed Lemna minor Liliopsida Lemnaceae as a natural biofilter in brackish and fresh closed recirculating system. AACL Bioflux 2012 Volume 5 Issue 5: 380-392 15 Ozorio Rodrigo O.A Leandro Portz Ricardo Borghesi and Jose E.P. Cyrino. 2012. Effects of dietary yeast Saccharomyces cerevisia supplementation in practical diets of tilapia. Animals. 2012 2 16-24. 16 Palinggi N.N Kamaruddin and Makmur. 2008. Addition of microbe Aspergillus niger to palm oil cake as an ingredient of diets for tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus juveniles. J. Ris. Akuakultur. Vol. 3 No. 3: 385-394. 17 Rahman M.A and K. Marimuthu. 2010. Effect of different stocking density on growth survival and production of endangered native fish climbing perch Anabas testudineus Bloch fingerlings in nursery ponds. Adv. Environ. Biol. 42: 178-186 2010. 18 Swingle H.S. 1967. Standardization of chemical analysis for waters and pond muds. FAO Fish. Res. 44 397-421. 19 Salnur Semih Nejdet Gultepe and Belgin Hossu. 2009. Replacement of fish meal by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Effects on digestibility and blood parameters for gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 812: 2557- 2561 2009. 20 Sitohang RV T. Herawati and W. Lili. 2012. Effect of giving rice ban yeast fermentation Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth of biomass Daphnia sp. Jurnal Perikanan dan Kelautan. Vol 3 No 1 Maret 2012: 65-72. 21 Talukdar M.Z.H M. Shahjahan and M.S. Rahman. 2012. Suitability of duckweed Lemna minor as feed for fish in polyculture system. Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. Tech. 21: 42-46 June 2012. 22 Tavares Flaviade Almeida Flavio Rubens Lapolli Rodrigo Roubach Mariele Katherine Jungles Debora Machado Fracalossi and Aquiles Moreira de Moraes. 2010. Use of domestic effluent through duckweeds and red tilapia farming in integrated system. Pan- American Journal of Aquatic Sciences PANAMJAS 2010 51: 1-10. 23 Yilmaz E Akyurt I and Gunal G. 2004. Use of duckweed Lemna minor as a protein feedstuff in practical diets for common carp Cyprinus carpio fry. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 4: 105-109 2004. 24 Warasto Yulisma and Fitrani M. 2013. Fermented of giant salvinia Salvinia molesta meal as feed ingrediant for tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Jurnal Akuakultur Rawa Indonesia. 12 173-183.

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