IJOER-MAY-2016-52

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Published on June 3, 2016

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slide 1: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-5 May- 2016 Page | 215 Ambient air mercury species TGM RGM GEM concentration study during mid-winter ~ mid-spring season at a traffic site Guor-Cheng Fang 1 Kai-Hsiang Tsai 2 Meng-Hsien Cho 3 Yuan-Jie Zhuang 4 Chao-Yang Huang 5 You-Fu Xiao 6 Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering Hung-Kuang University Sha lu Taichung 433 Taiwan Abstract — The main purpose of this study was to monitor ambient air mercury species TGM RGM GEM of Hung-Kuang traffic area at sampling site during mid-winter ~mid-spring season. In addition four-stage gold amalgamation and denuder samplers were used to collect the ambient air mercury species concentrations respectively. Moreover cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry CVAFS was directly used to detect the mercury TGM and RGM concentrations in this study. The result indicated that: 1. The average ratio for RGM concentrations out of the total gaseous mercury concentration was about 1.65 at the traffic sampling site. 2 The average TGM concentration values obtained in this study were 6630 pg/m 3 which is second to China average 9800 pg/m 3 when compared with the other countries during year 2010 ~2013. In addition Canada showed the average lowest RGM concentrations when Compared the other world areas during year of 2014 ~2015. The average RGM concentrations ratios for this study average 91.8 pg/m3 to Canada were about 73.4 during years of 2014 ~2015. 3 The results indicated that the correlation coefficients among total gaseous mercury TGM reaction gaseous mercury RGM gaseous element mercury GEM and meteorological conditions such as temperature and wind speed were low correlated related during mid-winter ~mid-spring season at this traffic sampling site. 4 Statistical method Mann- Whitney U statistical results revealed that there were significant differences in the mean concentrations values for the ambient air TGM RGM and TGM were the Hung-Kuang sampling periods at this traffic sampling site Keywords — denuder four-stage gold amalgamation gaseous element mercury reactive gaseous mercury total gaseous mercury. I. INTRODUCTION Mercury Hg is a trace element distributed throughout the earths atmosphere biosphere and geosphere 1 2. Atmospheric Hg consists of three different physical and chemical forms including gaseous elemental Hg GEM reactive gaseous Hg RGM and particulate Hg Hg p 3.Atmospheric mercury speciation is very important in the determination of the mercury atmospheric residence time. Atmospheric mercury species can be transformed back and forth between two oxidation states elemental and divalent 4 and elemental mercury is believed to have a longer residence time of about 1 year 5 compared to the divalent mercury several hours to several weeks. Recent studies reported RGM may represent 1–3 of total gaseous Hg TGM at rural continental sites 67 8. Because RGM is highly reactive and rapidly scavenged by moist particles and surfaces it can fall off quickly with distance from their primary sources e.g. incinerators non-metal smelters and power plants 9.RGM concentrations are likely to be highly variable and related to point sources meteorological conditions and oxidant levels in the air 10. The dominant form of mercury in the atmosphere is identified as a gaseous elemental mercury GEM: e.g. 98 that is characterized by high stability low solubility high volatility etc. 11. Gaseous element mercury GEM collection and analysis is quite not easy. Including some potential oxidants include HO O 3 HO 2 N 2 O 5 O 1 D and 3 P NO 2 Cl 2 and Br 2 12 13. Mercury in ocean waters is present as elemental mercury Hg0 monomethyl mercury MeHg dimethyl mercury Me 2 Hg aqueous divalent mercury Hg II colloidal mercury and particulate mercury 14. Among Hgp is associated with airborne particles such as dust soot sea-salt aerosols ice crystal or is likely produced by adsorption of RGM species eg HgCl 2 onto atmospheric particles 15. All three forms are released by anthropogenic sources primarily combustion processes as well as by a variety of natural sources and processes. Natural sources include crustal degassing volcanoes a component of the reemitted mercury from soils and aquatic surfaces weathering processes of the Earths crust and some forest fires 16. On a global scale the slide 2: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-5 May- 2016 Page | 216 dominant component of the mercury released from terrestrial and oceanic systems is previously deposited anthropogenic mercury rather than geogenic sources 17. Contributions from natural sources and processes vary geographically and over time depending on a number of factors including meteorological conditions the presence of volcanic or geothermal activities the presence of Hg bearing minerals such as cinnabar the magnitude of exchange processes between waters and the atmosphere the re-emission of previously deposited Hg from top soils and plants and also the occurrence of forest fires 18 19 20. The main purpose of this study is to 1. Monitor ambient air TGM RGM and GEM concentrations at Hung- Kuang traffic area during mid-winter ~mid-spring seasons of Dec. 2015 to Mar. 2016. 2. Compare TGM and RGM concentrations at the Hung-Kuang traffic sampling site with other studies. 3. Find the concentration correlation for TGM RGM and GEM to meteorological conditions temperature wind speed and humidity at these characteristic sampling sites. 4. Apply appropriate statistical method Mann-Whitney U in the testing the mean TGM RGM GEM concentration differences during mid-winter ~mid-spring season at this traffic sampling site. II. METHODOLOGY 2.1 Sampling site Figure 1 display the geographical location at Hung-Kuang University traffic area 24°1260.0"N 120°3503.2"E in central Taiwan. All the samples were collected for 24 hrs. The sampling site is located in Sha-lu Taichung Taiwan. Ambient particle concentrations were sampled on the roof of the Medical and Industrial Building at Hung-Kuang University an eight- story building 22 m height at the top of Da Du Mountain. There were 6400 vehicles pass by during the day time working hours at this Taiwan Formosa expressed 3 high way. And there were 12000vehicles pass by during the night time working hours at this Taiwan Formosa expressed 3 high way. Basically it is a traffic characteristic sampling site. Taichung Science Park which is about 9.5 km on the east of sampling site. There were about 298 factories and plants inside the Taichung Science Park. Taichung Harbor Related Industrial Zone and Taichung Industrial Park were located on the southwest east sides of this traffic sampling site respectively. Taichung Thermal Power Plant TTPP was just on the west side of 13 km away from this traffic site. FIGURE 1 CHARACTERISTICS SAMPLING SITE TRAFFIC AT HUNG-KUANG UNIVERSITY TRAFFIC AREA CENTRAL TAIWAN. slide 3: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-5 May- 2016 Page | 217 2.2 Four-stage gold amalgamation and denuder Figure 2-1 displayed four-stage gold amalgamation sampling device. It was used to collect total gaseous mercury TGM concentration and was composed of from little amalgam. The total sampling period is 24hrs with flow rate 0.25 m 3 /min. The total TGM concentrations were sum up by adding these from little amalgam after 24hrs sampling period. Figure 2-2 displayed denuder sampling device. The heating system inside the insulated box consisted of a pair of general radiant heaters mounted inside the case and a pair of electronic temperature controlled proportional integral and derivative PID heating sleeves that were placed directly over the denuders to maintain 50°C. The denuder heating sleeves were constructed of polypropylene pipe insulation lined with silicone heating tape. Maintaining the denuders and inlets well above ambient temperatures during sampling was critical to prevent hy-drolysis of the KCl coating surface as well as ensure quantitative transport of RGM through the inlet. The volu-metrically flow-controlled pump was set to maintain 0.01 m 3 /min to ensure an impact or aerodynamic aerosol cut point of 2.5 μm. 21The average sampling time period was 1440±60 min for each sampling group. All the samples was collected and brought back to laboratory for analysis. Amalgam sampling quartz tube was connected to the Two-stage gold amalgamation by blowing the Ar gas into this amalgam sampling quartz tube. Cold-Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry CVAFS was followed up for the RGM analysis in this study. FIGURE 2-1 AMBIENT AIR TOTAL GASEOUS MERCURY TGM SAMPLING. FIGURE 2-2AMBIENT AIR REACTION GASEOUS MERCURY RGM SAMPLING. 2.3 Cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry Air was pulled through the vapor-phase sampling system using a mass-flow-controlled vacuum pump at a nominal flow rate of 0.3 L/min. Determination of vapor- and particle-phase mercury in ambient air was accomplished using dual-amalgamation Cold-Vapor Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry CVAFS Brook Rank USA. The amount of vapor-phase mercury that was collected on a cold-coated bead trap was determined directly by CVAFS. The sample trap was heated to release the collected mercury. The desorbed mercury is carried in an inert gas stream He or Ar to a second cold-coated bead trap which was the analytical trap. The mercury that is collected on the analytical trap is then thermally desorbed and carried into the CVAFS analyzer. The resulting voltage peak was integrated to determine the peak area for the sample.22 2.4 Quality control TGM and RGM were blank test background contamination monitored by using operational blanks unexposed glass fiber tube and glass fiber filter which were processed simultaneously with field samples. Background contamination of mercury slide 4: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-5 May- 2016 Page | 218 was accounted for by subtracting field blank values from the concentrations. Field sample concentrations were obtained from subtracting blank samples for each sampling group. In this study the background contamination is insignificant and can be ignored. The results average of the blank test was 1.96 pg for total gases mercury TGM and reaction gases mercury RGM. 2.5 Mann-Whitney U test statistics The Mann-Whitney U test is a non-parametric test that can be used in place of an unpaired t-test. It is used to test the null hypothesis that two samples come from the same population i.e. have the same median or alternatively whether observations in one sample tend to be larger than observations in the other. Although it is a non-parametric test it does assume that the two distributions are similar in shape. This study also applied Mann-Whitney U test to see the differences of average total gases mercury TGM reaction gases mercury RGM and gaseous element mercuryGEM concentrations at traffic characteristic sample site. III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Meteorological conditions Hung-Kuang Traffic area sampling site during Dec. 2015 to Mar. 2016. Table 1 present the meteorological conditions at the Hung-Kuang University Traffic area sampling sites from Dec 11 2015 to Mar 16 2016. The mean temperature relative humidity and wind speed Dec 11 2015 to Mar 16 2016 at the Hung- Kuang University Traffic area sampling site were 17.06 o C 76.81 and 4.7 m/s respectively. TABLE 1 ATMOSPHERIC METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS AT HUNG-KUANG UNIVERSITY TRAFFIC AREA DURING OFDEC. 2015 TO MAR. 2016. Year Sampling date Temp. ℃ R.H. W.S. m/sec W.D. 2015 Dec 11 20.12 76.20 4.8 NE Dec 14 22.12 83.37 4.4 E Dec 16 15.20 63.95 8.2 ENE Dec 18 14.87 64.04 4.1 NE Dec 22 22.29 88.75 2.4 SSW Dec 29 17.41 70.54 3.6 SE 2016 Jan 12 16.66 81.87 6.3 NE Jan 14 14.58 78.12 5.7 E Jan 18 14.54 72.12 5.7 E Feb 23 14.33 82.95 7.3 ENE Feb 24 13.47 78.86 6.8 ENE Mar 01 14.41 62.70 3.8 SE Mar 03 17.95 70.91 1.3 S Mar 07 20.66 84.45 2.7 SSE Mar 16 17.25 93.37 3.0 SE Mean 17.06 76.81 4.7 -- Temp:TemperatureRH: Relative humidity WS: Wind speed WD: Wind direction 3.2 Ambient air mercury species TGM RGM GEM concentrations during mid-winter ~mid-spring in central Taiwan. Table 2 display the TGM RGM GEM and RGM concentrations during the year of Dec 11 2015 to Mar 16 2016. The result indicated that the highest average TGM concentration in Dec. 2015. In addition the highest average RGM concentration in Mar.2016. Moreover the result indicated that the highest average GEM concentration in Dec. 2016. Meanwhile the average RGM/TGM ratios were founded highest in March and the average ratios were 2.913. The possible reason is that the source surface emissions such as ocean and related local industrial activates were be in vogue during that period of time. And all the above industrial activate such as Taichung Thermal Power Plant TTPP Prowin Plastech co. slide 5: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-5 May- 2016 Page | 219 LTD. King Kong Foundry co. LTD. were located in the western side of the sampling site. The wind was mainly direction blown the western side of the sampling site. Thus high reaction gaseous mercury RGM concentration was measured during this period of time. TABLE 2 AMBIENT AIR MERCURY SPECIES TGM RGM GEM CONCENTRATIONS DURING MID-WINTER ~ MID SPRING IN CENTRAL TAIWAN. Year Date TGM RGM GEM RGM RGM/TGM pg/m 3 pg/m 3 pg/m 3 2015 Dec 11 6210 202.1 6010 3.25 Dec 14 8120 0.053 8120 0.001 Dec 16 8800 25.00 8770 0.28 Dec 18 6040 158.8 5880 2.63 Dec 22 9020 301.9 8720 3.35 Dec 29 10100 1.963 10080 0.02 Average 8048 115.0 7930 1.589 2016 Jan 12 10300 - - - Jan 14 7740 3.265 7740 0.04 Jan 18 5870 238.8 5630 4.07 Average 7970 121.0 6685 2.055 Feb 23 3900 1.163 3900 0.03 Feb 24 6840 1.123 6830 0.02 Average 5370 1.143 5365 0.025 Mar 01 9220 32.26 9190 0.35 Mar 03 3710 47.32 3670 1.27 Mar 07 2490 67.58 2420 2.72 Mar 16 5100 372.8 4727 7.31 Average 5130 129.99 5002 2.913 3.3 Comparisons with the other studies for TGM and RGM concentrations during years of 2010 2015 According reference of RGM concentrations may represent 1 of total gaseous Hg TGM at rural continental sites. Ralph J. Valente et al 2007 As for a traffic sampling site of this study table 3 displayed average total gaseous mercury TGM and reaction gaseous mercury RGM concentrations with those of the other world regions during years of 2010-2015. The results indicated the average total gaseous mercury TGM and reaction gaseous mercury RGM concentrations were 6630 pg/m 3 and 91.8 pg/m 3 for this study respectively and average total gaseous mercury TGM concentrations were 4280 pg/m 3 in the USA and China areas during years of 2010-2013. The average ratios were 0.65. Moreover the average total gaseous mercury TGM concentrations were 3453 pg/m 3 in the Korea and Taiwan area during year of 2013. The mean ratios for ambient air mercury concentrations for Korea and Taiwan to this study were 0.52. In addition the average reaction gaseous mercury RGM concentration was 2.35pg/m 3 in the Canada and USA area during years of 2013-2014. The mean ratios for ambient air mercury concentrations for Canada and USA to this study were 0.025. Moreover the average reaction gaseous mercury RGM concentrations were 23.91 pg/m 3 in the China Korea and Spain area during years of 2011-2016. The mean ratios for ambient air mercury concentrations for China Korea and Spain to this study were 0.26. To sum up we conclude that the average highest TGM concentration was founded in Guiyang China. High economic and industrial which caused exhausted waste emissions were the possible reasons responsible for the above results. Moreover Korea have the lower mercury species concentrations than that of China. On the contrary the average TGM concentration measured in U.S.A were slide 6: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-5 May- 2016 Page | 220 lowest than those of the other Asian countries. Noteworthy the average RGM concentration was founded in this study central Taiwan. TTPP and THRIP which located in the western side of our sampling site. In addition to TTPP and THRIP were mercury location such as Prowin Plastech co. LTD. and King Kong Foundry co. LTD. which concentration the potential sources for RGM. Thus high RGM concentration was measured in t his study. However when compared with the other Asian countries the results further indicated that Taiwan has the average highest RGM concentration followed by main land China during 20112015. And Korea has the lowest average RGM concentration. The average lowest RGM concentration were founded in U.S.A Canada and Spain during years of 20132014. When compared with these of the other countries the results showed that the U.S.A. has the average lowest mercury species TGM RGM GEM concentrations during the years of 2010 ~2013. The average TGM concentration ratio of China/ U.S.A. was about 2.5 in the year of 2010 ~2013. TABLE 3 COMPARISONS WITH THE OTHER STUDIES FOR TGM AND RGM CONCENTRATIONS DURING YEARS OF 2010 2015 Country Locations TGM pg/m 3 Reference USA Detroit 2500 Liu et al. 2010 USA Mississippi 2000 Jiang et al. 2013 China Guiyang 9800 Fu et al. 2011 China Waliguan 2000 Fu et al. 2012 China Mt. Dinghu 5100 Chen et al. 2013 Koera Guro-gu 3600 Kim et al. 2013 Taiwan Taichung HK Day 3640 Fang et al. 2013 Taiwan Taichung HK Night 3120 Fang et al. 2013 Taiwan Taichung Hung-Kuang 6630 This study Country Locations RGM pg/m 3 Reference Canada Halifax regional municipality 2.1 Cheng et al. 2014 Canada Kejimkujik National Park 0.4 Cheng et al. 2014 USA Huntington 1.3 Choi et al. 2013 USA Rochester 5.6 Choi et al. 2013 China Guiyang 35.7 Xuewu Fu et al. 2011 China Xiamen 61.05 Lingling Xu et al. 2015 Korea Seoul 11.3 Han et al. 2014 Korea Chuncheon 2.7 Han et al. 2014 Spain Puertollano 8.8 Alba Martínez-Coronado. 2016 Taiwan Taichung Hung-Kuang 91.8 This study 3.4 Statistical Mann-Whitney analysis of TGM RGM and GEM were the 24 hours period sampling site. Table 4 displayed the statistical methods in the judging of the distribution differences for the ambient air TGM RGM and GEM at Hung-Kuang Traffic Area sampling site. The results were summarized as followed: Statistical analysis of correlation coefficients in TGM and RGM at the 24 hours period sampling site yielded a Mann- Whitney U statistic of 15.00 which is greater uα/0.05 0.001 Mann-Whitney U of 0 suggesting that the sample population means are significant difference. Moreover statistical analysis of correlation coefficients in RGM and GEM at the 24 hours period sampling site yielded a Mann-Whitney U statistic of 15.00 which is greater uα/0.050.001 Mann-Whitney U of 14.5 suggesting that the sample population means are significant difference. slide 7: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-5 May- 2016 Page | 221 TABLE 4 STATISTICAL MANN-WHITNEY ANALYSIS OF TGM RGM AND GEM WERE THE 24 HOURS PERIOD SAMPLING SITE. Mann-Whitney Sampling sites Mercury species mean SD Mann-Whitney U P value pg/m 3 statistic Hung-Kuang-Traffic -Area TGM 6840 2414 0 0.001 RGM 32.26 127.2 RGM 32.26 127.2 14.5 0.001 GEM 6010 2325 3.5 Relationship of concentration coefficients for ambient air TGM RGM and GEM vs. temperature at Hung- Kuang traffic sampling site. Figure 3 presents the correlation coefficients for ambient air TGM RGM and GEM concentrations vs. temperature at Hung- Kuang traffic sampling site. TGM concentrations were ranged from 2490 to 10300pg/m 3 with a mean of 6629pg/m 3 . RGM ranges from 0.053 to 372.8pg/m 3 with a mean of 91.78pg/m 3 . GEM ranges from 2420 to 10080pg/m 3 with a mean of 6245pg/m 3 . The results indicated that the correlation coefficients for TGM RGM and GEM concentrations vs. temperature were 0.0009 9E-06 and 0.0777 respectively. The above results indicated that TGM RGM and GEM were low correlated to this of temperature at this traffic sampling site. FIGURE 3 RELATIONSHIP OF CONCENTRATION COEFFICIENTS FOR AMBIENT AIR TGM RGM AND GEM VS. TEMPERATURE AT HUNG-KUANG TRAFFIC SAMPLING SITE. 3.6 Relationship of concentration coefficients for ambient air TGM RGM and GEM vs. wind speed at Hung- Kuang traffic sampling site. Figure 4 presents the correlation coefficients for ambient air TGM RGM and GEM concentrations vs. wind speed at Hung- Kuang traffic sampling site. TGM concentrations were ranged from 2490 to 10300pg/m 3 with a mean of 6629relationpg/m 3 . RGM ranges from 0.053 to 372.8pg/m 3 with a mean of 91.78pg/m 3 . GEM ranges from 2420 to 10080pg/m 3 with a mean of 6245pg/m 3 .The results indicated that the correlation coefficients for TGM RGM and GEM concentrations vs. wind speed slide 8: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-5 May- 2016 Page | 222 were 0.06 0.0001 and 0.1539 respectively. The above results indicated that TGM RGM and GEM were low correlated to this of wind speed at this traffic sampling site. FIGURE 4 RELATIONSHIP OF CONCENTRATION COEFFICIENTS FOR AMBIENT AIR TGM RGM AND GEM VS. WIND SPEED AT HUNG-KUANG TRAFFIC SAMPLING SITE. 3.7 Relationship of concentration coefficients for ambient air TGM RGM and GEM vs. humidity at Hung- Kuang traffic sampling site. Figure 5 presents the correlation coefficients for ambient air TGM RGM and GEM concentrations vs. humidity at Hung- Kuang traffic sampling site. TGM concentrations were ranged from 2490 to 10300pg/m 3 with a mean of 6629pg/m 3 . RGM ranges from 0.053 to 372.8pg/m 3 with a mean of 91.78pg/m 3 . GEM ranges from 2420 to 10080pg/m 3 with a mean of 6245pg/m 3 . The results indicated that the correlation coefficients for TGM RGM and GEM concentrations vs. wind speed were 0.06 0.0001 and 0.1539 respectively. Moreover the above results further indicated that the higher the correlation humidity the lower the TGM RGM and GEM concentrations were measured at this traffic sampling site. In contrast the higher the relation humidity the higher the RGM concentrations were measured at this traffic sampling site. FIGURE 5 RELATIONSHIP OF CONCENTRATION COEFFICIENTS FOR AMBIENT AIR TGM RGM AND GEM VS. HUMIDITY AT HUNG-KUANG TRAFFIC SAMPLING SITE. slide 9: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-5 May- 2016 Page | 223 IV. CONCLUSION The major conclusions for this study are as follows:  The average ratio for RGM concentrations out of the total gaseous mercury concentration was about 1.65 at the traffic sampling site.  The average TGM concentration values obtained in this study were 6630 pg/m 3 which is second to China average 9800 pg/m 3 when compared with the other countries during year 2010 ~2013. In addition Canada showed the average lowest RGM concentrations when Compared the other world areas during year of 2014 ~2015. The average RGM concentrations ratios for this study average 91.8 pg/m3 to Canada were about 73.4 during years of 2014 ~2015.  The results indicated that the correlation coefficients among total gaseous mercury TGM reaction gaseous mercury RGM gaseous element mercury GEM and meteorological conditions such as temperature and wind speed were low correlated related during mid-winter ~mid-spring season at this traffic sampling site.  Statistical method Mann-Whitney U statistical results revealed that there were significant differences in the mean concentrations values for the ambient air TGM RGM and TGM were the Hung-Kuang sampling periods at this traffic sampling site. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge the National Science Council of the ROC Taiwan for financially supporting this work under project no. 103-2221-E-241 -004-MY3. 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Stevens F. Schaedlich E. Prestbo 2002. Development and characterization of an annular denuder methodology for the measurement of divalent inorganic reactive gaseous mercury in ambient air. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36 pp. 3000–3009. 8 L. Poissant M. Pilote X. Xu H. Zhang C. Beauvais 2004. Atmospheric mercury speciation and deposition in the Bay St. Francois wetlands. . Geophys. Res 109 p. D11301. 9 S.E. Lindberg W.J. Stratton 1998. Atmospheric speciation concentrations and behavior of reactive gaseous mercury in ambient air. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32 pp. 49–57. 10 Q. Wan X. Feng J. Lu W. Zheng X. Song P. Li S. Han H. Xu 2009. Atmospheric mercury in Changbai Mountain area northeastern China II. The distribution of reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury and mercury deposition fluxes. Environmental Research. Volume 109 Issue 6 Pages 721–727. 11 W.H. Schroeder J. Munthe 1998. 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Telmer 2010.Global mercury emissions to the atmosphere from anthropogenic and natural sources.Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 10 pp. 5951–5964. slide 10: International Journal of Engineering Research Science IJOER ISSN: 2395-6992 Vol-2 Issue-5 May- 2016 Page | 224 17 D.G. Streets M.K. Devane Z. Lu T.C. Bond E.M. Sunderland D.J. Jacob 2011.All-time releases of mercury to the atmosphere from human activities.Environmental Science Technology 45 24 pp. 10485–10491. 18 R.P. Mason 2009.Mercury emissions from natural processes and their importance in the global mercury cycle.R. Mason N. Pirrone Eds. Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere Springer US pp. 173–191. 19 H. Friedli S. A.A. N Cinnirella Pirrone.2009.Initial estimates of mercury emissions to the atmosphere from global biomass burning.Environmental Science Technology 43 10 pp. 3507–3513. 20 N. Pirrone S. Cinnirella X. Feng R.B. Finkelman H.R. Friedli J. Leaner R. Mason A.B. Mukherjee G.B. Stracher D.G. Streets K. Telmer 2010.Global mercury emissions to the atmosphere from anthropogenic and natural sources.Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 10 pp. 5951–5964 21 S. Landis Matthew K. RobertStevens Frank Schaedlich M. Prestbo Eric 2002. Development and Characterization of an Annular Denuder Methodology for the Measurement of Divalent Inorganic Reactive Gaseous Mercury in Ambient Air. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36 3000-3009. 22 G.C. Fang Y.L. Huang J.H. Huang C.K. Liu 2012. Optimum particle size for prediction of ambient air arsenic dry deposition in central Taiwan. Atmospheric Research 104–1050 255-263.

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