Published on October 26, 2007
Industrialization and Ideology: Industrialization and Ideology The Industrial Revolution1750-1850: The Industrial Revolution 1750-1850 A process which led to gradual, long-term growth rates over a sustained period of time. There were also changes in the following: Structural/Institutional Changes Technology Energy – fossil fuels Organization – the factory and the corporation Labor – wage-based, division of labor Global Dimension – migration/immigration Overview: The Industrial Revolution: Overview: The Industrial Revolution Energy: coal (fossil fuels) and steam replace wind, water, human and animal labor Organization: factories over cottage industries Rural agriculture declines, urban manufacturing increases Transportation: trains, automobiles replace animals, watercraft Why is England the first to industrialize? Contributing Conditions:: Why is England the first to industrialize? Contributing Conditions: Colonies – “ghost acres” and raw materials Agricultural changes – greater productivity (Ex., Jethro Tull, agronomist) – population growth Mobile labor supply Capital available Mindset of the gentry/landowning/ middle classes – entrepreneurship Political stability – Constitutional Monarchy More British Advantages: More British Advantages Strong banking tradition Natural resources Coal, iron ore Ease of transportation Size of country River and canal system Exports to imperial colonies Esp. machine textiles Cotton-producing Technology: Cotton-producing Technology Flying shuttle doubled weaving output without doubling supply of yarn Spinning jenny (1768) Increased supply of yarn, faster than flying shuttle could process Power loom (1787) met supply of yarn (Think of Andrew Carnegie’s family) The Growth of Factories: The Growth of Factories Massive machinery Supply of labor Transport of raw materials, finished product to markets Concentration in newly built factory towns on rivers Note: British advantages only last about 100 years “no nation has been technologically creative for more than an historically short period” Why? The Factory System: The Factory System Early modern Europe adopts “putting-out” system Individuals work at home, employers avoid wage restrictions of medieval guilds Rising prices cause factories to replace both guilds and putting-out system Machines too large, expensive for home use Large buildings could house specialized laborers Urbanization guarantees supply of cheap unskilled labor New Sources of Power: New Sources of Power Steam Engine James Watt (1736-1819) Coal fired Applied to rotary engine, multiple applications 1760: 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton imported 1787: 22 million 1840: 360 million Implications: Slave Labor: Implications: Slave Labor Cheap cotton from American south Benefit of transatlantic slave trade Irony: early British abolitionism, yet profit motive retained Note: All major English capitalists invested in the slave-sugar trade and other trade ventures that relied on colonies and slavery, with huge returns on their investments. At the same time, many also championed the abolition of slavery. Iron Industry: Iron Industry Henry Cort devises method of refining iron ore (1780s) First major advance since middle ages 1852 produces more high-quality iron than rest of world combined Synergy with increasing technological development Note: Technological advances at this time more implementation that invention; created by “tinkerers and craftsmen and skilled workmen” rather than the result of scientific theories applied in a systematic way. Rail Transport: Rail Transport 1804 first steam-powered locomotive Capacity: Ten tons + 70 passengers @ 5 mph The Rocket from Liverpool to Manchester (1830), 16 mph Ripple effect on industrialization Engineering and architecture Note: Until the railroad it was impossible to have a unified market for easy transport of goods. Humans lived in a 4 mile an hour world. But with trains like the Rocket, the price of goods plummeted, the transport of goods was quicker and more reliable. Thus, a national market was born. Overview: Creation of New Classes: Overview: Creation of New Classes The Industrial Middle Class - Bourgeoisie Urban Proletariat – Factory workers Shift in political power to the Bourgeoisie Inspiration for new political systems—Liberalism (Bourgeois Middle classes) and its competitor, Marxian Socialism. The Industrial Middle Class: The Bourgeoisie: The Industrial Middle Class: The Bourgeoisie New class, evolved from guild merchants in cities “bourgeoisie” From Capitalists (upper middle class) to shopkeepers (lower middle class) Begin to eclipse power and status of agrarian landed classes Note: They project an image of “respectability,” “clean collars,” professionals, rationalism, pious, frugal and hard-working, family men, sober, civic-minded, men of property, moral. Bourgeoisie Liberalism: The ideology of the Middle Classes: Bourgeoisie Liberalism: The ideology of the Middle Classes Based on Enlightenment ideas: Laissez-faire economics Popular sovereignty – (not democracy) men of property should rule, but power should come from them. Constitutionalism – sharing power Rights and freedoms – press, assembly, religion, property. Individualism and free thought. Poverty – new definition—character over birth. “If you’re poor it’s because of your own failure—sink or swim” The Proletariat: The Proletariat Blue-collar factory workers Tremendous growth in numbers as industrialization expands. Worked in ecologically disastrous conditions for long hours. Regarded as “dangerous, the mob, irrational, dirty, lazy, drunkards, immoral, “breeders,” not religious or civic-minded, criminals. Overview: Unexpected Impact of the Industrial Revolution: Overview: Unexpected Impact of the Industrial Revolution Genesis of an environmental catastrophe Intellectual origins of human domination over natural resources Unforeseen toxins, occupational hazards Reliance on non-renewable fossil fuels. Social ills Landless proletariat Migrating work forces Definition of poverty changed: individual failure rather than the norm; poverty = deviance. Spread of Industrialization: Spread of Industrialization Spread throughout Europe—France, Germany, Russia, America and Japan by the end of the 19th century. Development of technical schools for engineers, architects, etc. Government support for large public works projects (canals, rail system). Huge financial institutions supporting the global demands of industrialization. Industrial Europe ca. 1850 : Industrial Europe ca. 1850 Big Business: New Organizations as Industrialism spreads.: Big Business: New Organizations as Industrialism spreads. Large factories require start-up capital Corporations formed to share risk, maximize profits Britain and France lay foundations for modern corporation, 1850-1860s Private business owned by hundreds, thousands or even millions of stockholders Investors get dividends if profitable, lose only investments in case of bankruptcy Industrialization in the United States: Industrialization in the United States 1800 US agrarian Population 5 million No city larger than 100,000 6/7 Americans farmers 1860 US industrializing Population 30 million Nine cities 100K + ½ Americans farmers Mass Production: Mass Production Eli Whitney (U.S., 1765-1825) invents cotton gin (1793), also technique of using machine tools to make interchangeable parts for firearms “the American system” Applied to wide variety of machines Henry Ford, 1913, develops assembly line approach Complete automobile chassis every 93 minutes Previously: 728 minutes Distribution of Wealth in the U.S.: Distribution of Wealth in the U.S. Mature Industrialism at the end of the 19th century. Monopolies, Trusts, and Cartels: Mature Industrialism at the end of the 19th century. Monopolies, Trusts, and Cartels Large corporations form blocs to drive out competition, keep prices high John D. Rockefeller controls almost all oil drilling, processing, refining, marketing in U.S. German IG Farben controls 90% of chemical production Governments often slow to control monopolies Population Growth (millions): Population Growth (millions) The Demographic Transition: The Demographic Transition Industrialization results in marked decline of both fertility and mortality by the end of the 19th c.e. Costs of living increase in industrial societies Urbanization proceeds dramatically 1800: only 20% of Britons live in towns with population over 10,000 1900: 75% of Britons live in urban environments Contraception: Contraception Ancient and medieval methods: Egypt: crocodile dung depository Asia: oral contraceptives (mercury, arsenic) Elsewhere: beeswax, oil paper diaphragms Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) predicts overpopulation crisis, advocates “moral restraint” Condoms invented in England Made from animal intestines in 17th century, latex in 19th century Development of Slums: Development of Slums London: 1 million in 1800, 2.4 million in 1850 Wealthy classes move out to suburbs Industrial slum areas develop in city centers Open gutters as sewage systems Danger of Cholera First sewage systems, piped water only in 1848 Transcontinental Migrations: Transcontinental Migrations 19th-early 20th centuries, rapid population growth drives Europeans to Americas 50 million cross Atlantic Britons to avoid urban slums, Irish to avoid potato famines of 1840s, Jews to abandon Tsarist persecution United States favored destination Women in the Workforce: Women in the Workforce Agricultural, cottage industry work involved women: natural transition But as industrialization progresses, development of men as prime breadwinners, women in private sphere, the “Angel of the Hearth” to care for the home. Double burden: women expected to maintain home as well as work in industry, if not middle class. Related to child labor: as children’s labor restricted by law, and schools created, lack of day care facilities. Women worked as the demands of the family required. “Women live like bats or owls, labor like beasts and die like worms.” Duchess of Newcastle, 17th century. Child Labor: Child Labor Easily exploited Low wages: 1/6 to 1/3 of adult male wages High discipline Advantages of size Coal tunnels Gathering loose cotton under machinery Cotton industry, 1838: children 29% of workforce Factory Act of 1833: 9 years minimum working age The Socialist Challenge to Capitalism: The Socialist Challenge to Capitalism Socialism first used in context of Utopian Socialists Charles Fourier (1772-1837) and Robert Owen (1771-1858) (The Phalanx, one of the agricultural cooperatives started in France but spreading to the U.S. existed for about 20 years and gave its name to Phalanx Road. Opposed competition of market system Attempted to create small model communities Inspirational for larger social units What all Socialists Believed: What all Socialists Believed Optimists – believed society could be reformed, including the economic system. Social activists-as individuals and that government should guarantee basic needs. Cooperative—Humans were cooperative by nature, but society forced them to compete. Property was the key to equitable distribution of resources. Economic Democracy – popular sovereignty in the economic sphere. Industrialism is good. Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895): Marxian Socialism “Scientific”: Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895): Marxian Socialism “Scientific” Two major classes, always in conflict: Capitalists, who control means of production Proletariat, wageworkers who sell labor Exploitative nature of capitalist system Religion: “opiate of the masses” Argued for an overthrow of capitalists in favor of a “dictatorship of the proletariat” Economic Determinism – your economic situation influences everything you do, think, eat, say, believe. Marx’s chief contribution: A society cannot be understood without an analysis of its economic system. Social Reform and Trade Unions: Social Reform and Trade Unions Socialism had major impact on 19th century reformers Reduced property requirements for male suffrage Addressed issues of medical insurance, unemployment compensation, retirement benefits Trade unions form for collective bargaining Strikes to address workers’ concerns Evolutionary Socialism: workers and their political representatives get the right to vote by the end of the 19th century and are elected to office to change existing wrongs. ARE PATRIOTISM AND NATIONALISM THE SAME?: ARE PATRIOTISM AND NATIONALISM THE SAME? “By patriotism, I mean devotion to a particular place and a particular way of life, which one believes to be the best in the world but has no wish to force on other people.” “Patriotism is of its nature defensive, both militarily and culturally.” “Nationalism, on the other hand, is inseparable from the desire for power.” George Orwell, 1945. A Definition of Nationalism: A Definition of Nationalism “Nationalism, of course, is intrinsically absurd. Why should the accident—fortune or misfortune—of birth as an American, Albanian, Scott, or Fiji Islander impose loyalties that dominate an individual life and structure a society so as to place it in formal conflict with others? In the past there were local loyalties to place and clan or tribe, obligations to lord or landlord, dynastic or territorial wars, but primary loyalties were to God or God-king, possibly to emperor, to a civilization as such. There was no nation. William Pfaff Nations and Nationalism: Nations and Nationalism “Nation” a type of community, especially prominent in 19th century Distinct from clan, religious, regional identities Usually based on shared language, customs, values, historical experience Sometimes common religion Idea of nation has immediate relationship with political boundaries Origins with the French Revolution and Napoleon’s armies spread it throughout Europe. Types of Nationalism“Tell me where you’re from and I’ll tell you who you are.”: Types of Nationalism “Tell me where you’re from and I’ll tell you who you are.” Cultural nationalism = ethnic identity=linked with the Romantic literary movement, with its focus on the unique ethnic makeup of each people. Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803) praises the Volk (“people”) Literature, folklore, music as expressions of Volksgeist: “spirit of the people” Political nationalism = political identity Movement for political independence of nation from other authorities – “Each nationality should have its own political house.” Unification of national lands Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872), “Young Italy” The Congress of Vienna (1814-1815): The Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Meeting after defeat of Napoleon Prince Klemens von Metternich (Austria, 1773-1859) supervises dismantling of Napoleon’s empire Established balance of power Worked to suppress development of nationalism among multi-national empires like the Austrian National Rebellions: National Rebellions Greeks in Balkan peninsula seek independence from Ottoman Turks, 1821 With European help, Greece achieves independence in 1830 Rebellions all over Europe, especially in 1848 Rebels take Vienna, Metternich resigns and flees But rebellions put down by 1849 Cultural Nationalism fails to unite Unification of Italy and Germany: Unification of Italy and Germany Italy and Germany formerly disunited groups of regional kingdoms, city-states, ecclesiastical states Germany: over three hundred semiautonomous jurisdictions Nationalist sentiment develops idea of unification Count Camillo di Cavour (1810-1861) and Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) unify Italy under King Vitttore Emmanuele II Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) advances Realpolitik (“the politics of reality”), uses wars with neighbors to unify Germany Second Reich proclaimed in 1871 (Holy Roman Empire the first), King Wilhelm I named Emperor Unification of Germany and Italy: Unification of Germany and Italy Darwin: Biological Evolution and Natural Selection: Darwin: Biological Evolution and Natural Selection Traditional beliefs: Idea of evolution not new Geology—age of earth believed to be no more than 4000 years old, but scientists like Lyell suggest erosion and natural forces suggested earth far, far older. All species created by God as they presently existed. Darwin’s Ideas: Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871): Darwin’s Ideas: Origin of Species (1859) and The Descent of Man (1871) Natural Selection Variations exist within species. Variations are inherited. Nature is a scene of struggle for resources. Species best able to survive (through adaptation) will survive this struggle. Process of natural selection operates randomly, without God’s intervention. Darwin did not know how natural selection took place (Mendel’s genetic research would later provide the answer) Social Darwinism: Social Darwinism Sociologists like Herbert Spencer applied Darwin’s ideas to human societies. Spencer coined the term, “survival of the fittest”-but what constitutes “the fittest” in humans? “The fiercely competitive environments is cruel for weak individuals but promotes the overall good of the species by strengthening the fittest and stimulates overall enterprise; too much government holds back the strong and gives unnatural advantages to the weak. “ Racism: Racism Theories of Race developed by anthropologists. “Scientific” Racism developed Count Joseph Arthur de Gobineau (1816-1882) Combines with theories of Charles Darwin (1809-1882) to form pernicious doctrine of Social Darwinism Global Ramifications of Industrialism: Global Ramifications of Industrialism Global division of labor Rural societies that produce raw materials Urban societies that produce manufactured goods Uneven economic development – creation of rich-poor world. Developing export dependencies of Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, south and south-east Asia Low wages, small domestic markets Note: Industrialism and Nationalism will be a powerful combination that will lead to further inequities and conflict throughout the world, even as the benefits of industrialism are spread.