Published on September 3, 2007
Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Prepared by: Aadit Shrestha Kathmandu Engineering College Kathmandu, Nepal [email protected] Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Presentation Outline History of Internet Present Status of Internet Present Hot Topics Future of Internet Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal History of Internet Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal History of Internet in Nepal The e-mail Pioneers Innovative use of airwaves Mr. Satish Kharel, a renowned Lawyer and HAM Radio enthusiast (call sign 9N1AA), connected to an email server in Japan using packet radio. (1992) International Dialing (ISD) Some INGOs dialed to email servers in Europe for email services. (1993) First use by researchers Researchers at RONAST dialed to ERNet in India for email connection. Nepal Forum of Environmental Journalists also used this service. (1993) Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal History of Internet in Nepal First public use of services Mercantile Office Systems The first ISP to be established Nepal, which started commercial email services for the public from June 1994. They also started full online access to Internet from July 1995. Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal History of Internet in Nepal Major Milestones Establishment of first ISP in June 1994. Formulation of the Telecommunications Act in January 1997. Nepal Telecommunications Authority (NTA) established in March 1998. Formulation of IT Policy 2000. Start of Wireless Internet Service (64kbps+) 2003. Formulation of New Telecommunications Policy 2004. Registration of Cable Internet Service Providers 2004. Electronic Transaction and Digital Signature Act (Ready but yet to be ratified) Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Present Status of Internet Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Present Status of Internet Dominance of Dial-up More than 98% of Internet subscribers in Nepal use Dial-up for access Only a single major PSTN service provider – NTC (Nepal Telecommunication Corporation) Total number of PSTN subscribers – 4,00,217 The current telephone network penetration rate is 2.13% of the population. Total number of Dial-up Internet subscribers – 40,000 Total number of Internet users (40,000x5) = 2,00,000 Total number of registered ISPs – 26 Total number of VSAT users – 70 Total National Internet Bandwidth – 23 Mbps (Downlink) Cost of Dial-up Internet per minute (ISP + phone call charge) – $0.01 Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Present Status of Internet – Growth of ISPs *Data from NTA after its establishment in 1998. Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Present Status of Internet – Internet Users Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Present Status of Internet – .np Country Domain Total Number of Registered .np Websites – 5365 Thousands of sites running without .np name from servers inside andamp; outside Nepal. Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Present Status of Internet npIX Nepal Internet Exchange 'Keeping local traffic local' Established on 28 August 2003 Built with voluntary help from PCH (Packet Clearing House), USA. 6 major ISPs are participating. 100 Mbps Switch used; effective .np traffic bandwidth – 100 Mbps. A peak of 60 Mbps traffic bandwidth observed once. Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Present Hot Topics Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Present Hot Topics Cyber Café Culture Cyber Cafés most popular for browsing Internet, extremely popular among the youth. Browsing cheaper than using Dial-up from home. Cost of browsing per minute – $0.005 More than 1000 cyber cafés expected to be operating throughout Nepal. Around 50% of them operating in Kathmandu Valley. Many cyber cafés in Kathmandu now use 64 or 128 Kbps wireless modems. One cyber café opened even in Everest Base Camp (2003). Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Present Hot Topics e-Banking 2 commercial banks in Nepal offer e-banking services. Relatively new banks – Laxmi Bank and Kumari Bank. Account holders can transfer to other accounts or make payments to utilities and services through the banks’ website. International transactions currently not handled. Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Present Hot Topics e-Commerce Several e-commerce websites in operation, but based outside Nepal where credit card verification services are available. Credit Card transfers, and transfers from e-banking websites accepted. The most popular are muncha.com, thamelmall.com, bitarak.com. These sites mostly used to send gifts during religious festivals. Frequent users are Nepalis residing abroad. Delivery of goods done inside Nepal only. Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Present Hot Topics Rural Wireless Internet – A Snapshot 5 villages in remote Myagdi district in the Himalayas connected by wireless networks; no phone lines available. Internet Connectivity by wireless from Pokhara. Yak herders 2 days walk away from home sending emails and contacting family with NetMeeting. NetMeeting also being used to make health and medicine consultation for Yak herds, and to buy and sell livestock. The telecenter for this network being operated from Himanchal High School. No electricity lines in villages; renewable energy sources like solar and wind being used. 2 similar pilot projects being run by UNDP APDIP elsewhere in Nepal. Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Future of Internet Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Future of Internet More Choices, Lower Prices Nepal-wide optic fiber backbone being laid from East to West; expected to lower dial-up prices. 3 new Cable Internet ISPs licensed . NTC now providing ISDN connections. Wireless connections also gaining popularity – 802.11b. Internet users expected to grow by 33% each year. ICT HRD – 4 Universities have an annual intake capacity of 4000 students for different ICT-related programs at Bachelors and Masters levels. IT Park being developed near Kathmandu – Foreign Investment in ICT sector promoted. Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Future of Internet Hindrances to Growth of Internet Present situation of instability. Government policies not implemented; frequent change of governments. Need for more telecom and energy infrastructure. Vital telecom infrastructures being destroyed. Language Barrier. Affordability – GNI per capita is only $230 (2002 statistic). Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Future of Internet Target Area and Technology Focus Target Area: Rural Nepal People in Kathmandu Valley and other urban areas already have easy access to Internet. Internet now needs to reach rural areas. 'Internet for poverty reduction' – application in education, public health, gender equality, HIV/AIDS awareness, governance, agriculture – applications are limitless!!! Technology Focus: Wireless connectivity and renewable energy Need for less dependency on NTC for telecom infrastructure. Internet in Nepal: Internet in Nepal Thank You!