intro overheads f06

Information about intro overheads f06

Published on January 24, 2008

Author: Dario

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Economic Demography?:  Economic Demography? Economics--the study of how to best allocate scarce productive resources (land, labor, capital, TIME) for the production of goods and services to meet society’s unlimited wants.   Demography--the study of human populations: their size, composition, and distribution, as well as the causes and consequences of changes in these factors. Thinking Like an Economist:  Thinking Like an Economist Individuals act to maximize their expected utility Individuals are rational Preferences are relatively stable Choices have implicit as well as explicit costs Individuals are constrained by limited time, money, information, opportunity, etc. Markets exist to coordinate the actions of individuals Crude Birth Rate (CBR):  Crude Birth Rate (CBR) The CBR is the ratio of the number of births over a period of time to the midyear population at that time, expressed as the annual number of births per 1,000 people. CBRt = [(births in year t)/(midyear population in year t)] *1000 = (Bt/Pt) * 1000 Example: Kiribati (2005) CBR05 = (3,200/103,000) * 1000 = 31 per 1,000 Comparison: U.S. = 14 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base Estimated CBRs: 2005:  Estimated CBRs: 2005 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base Total Fertility Rate (TFR):  Total Fertility Rate (TFR) The TFR is the average number of births a group of women would have if, at every age, they were to experience the current age-specific fertility rate (ASFR) for that age. TFRt = [sum ASRF * 5]/1000 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base Age-Specific Fertility Rate (ASFR):  Age-Specific Fertility Rate (ASFR) The ASFR for women of age group “i” in a population during a given year is defined as the total number of births to women age “i” divided by the midyear population of women age “i”, expressed per 1,000 women. ASFRi =[(# births to women age i)/(# women age i)]*1,000 = (Bi/Wi) * 1,000 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base Estimated TFRs: 2005:  Estimated TFRs: 2005 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base Estimated ASFRs: 2006:  Estimated ASFRs: 2006 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base Crude Death Rate (CDR):  Crude Death Rate (CDR) The CDR is the ratio of the number of deaths over a period of time to the midyear population at that time, expressed as the annual number of deaths per 1,000 people. CDRt = [(deaths in year t)/(midyear population in year t)] *1000 = (Dt/Pt) * 1000 Example: Kiribati (2005) CDR05 = (800/103,000) * 1000 = 8 per 1,000 Comparison: U.S. = 8 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base Estimated CDRs: 2005:  Estimated CDRs: 2005 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base Estimated Life Expectancy: 2005:  Estimated Life Expectancy: 2005 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base Crude Rate of Natural Increase (CRNI):  Crude Rate of Natural Increase (CRNI) The CRNI is the rate of growth of the population over a particular period of time in the absence of migration, expressed per 1,000 people. The CRNI is the difference between the CBR and the CDR. CRNIt = CBRt – CDRt Example: Kiribati (2005) CRNI05 = 31 - 8 = 23 per 1,000 (or 2.3%) Comparison: U.S. = 6 (or 0.6%) Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base Rates of Population Growth(%): 2005:  Rates of Population Growth(%): 2005 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base

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