Information about introduction-120928032041-phpapp01

Published on July 10, 2014

Author: sunilsunny16



INTRODUCTION to PHARMACOGNOSY: INTRODUCTION to PHARMACOGNOSY Definition : : Definition : Pharmacy is the science of drug making / deals with their procurement (bring about), testing, storage and conversion into suitable forms ( tablets, capsules, emulsions etc) Drug :: Drug : Any substance used in the treatment of disease or diagnosis is known as drug . Diagnosis is the determination of nature of disease. Crude drug : Crude drug It is the simple drug ,crude drugs are plant, animal and their parts which after collection are subjected only to drying or making them into transverse or longitudinal pieces or peeling (stripping off skin or bark).They exist in natural forms. SOUCES OF DRUG: SOUCES OF DRUG Drugs used in medicine may be organic and inorganic in nature. Organic drugs are essentially of 2 types . 1. Purely synthetic : The product of man ‘s creation of new chemical entities ( structures) non – existent before the era of synthetic chemistry. 2.Drugs of biological origin : Produced in the living cell, biogenic drugs (crude drugs) PHARMACOGNOSY: PHARMACOGNOSY Pharmacognosy is the science of drugs of biological origin ( plant, animal, mineral ) or The word pharmacognosy was coined in 1815 by a German Scientist SEYDLER has been derived from two Greek words , Pharmacon ---- ‘ a drug, gignosco – ‘ acquire the knowledge of PowerPoint Presentation: Pharmacognosy is the subject of crude drugs obtained from the plants (vegetable), animal and mineral origin. Or It can also defined as the objective study of crude drugs of the natural sources processed scientifically. PowerPoint Presentation: The pharmacognosy is broadly defined as the scientific and systematic study of the structural, physical, chemical and sensory characters of crude drugs of vegetable, animal and mineral origin along with their history, method of cultivation, collection and preparation for the market. PowerPoint Presentation: Recently it includes: 1- Modern isolation techniques. 2- Pharmacological testing procedures to prepare purified substances. 3- Cultivation and propagation by tissue culture SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSY: SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSY Pharmacognosy has broad scope in the field of pharmacy such as : 1. ISOLATION OR ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL : Eg ; Strong acting substances such as glycosides from digitalis leaves, Alkaloids from the plants of Belladonna, Hyocyamus, Rauwlofia Morphine and other alkaloids from the plant opium were isolated and clinical uses studied PowerPoint Presentation: 2. STRUCTURE ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP : Eg : Tubocurarine and Toxiferine from curare plant have muscle relaxant properties because of quaternary ammonium groups. The hypotensive and tranquillizing actions of reserpine are due to the trimethoxy benzoic acid PowerPoint Presentation: 3. DRUGS OBTAIN:ED BY PARTIAL SYNTHESIS OF NATURAL PRODUCTS: Eg : Preparation of Steroid hormones from diosgenin by acetolysis and oxidation and further preparation of cortisone by microbial reactions . 4. NATURAL PRODUCTS AS MODELS FOR SYNTHESIS OF NEW DRUGS : Eg: Morphine is the model of a large group of potent drugs . Cocaine for local anaesthetics Atropine for certain spasmolytics PowerPoint Presentation: 5. DRUGS OF DIRECT THERAPEUTIC USES : Among the natural constituents which even now cannot be replaced are important group of antibiotics, steroids, ergot alkaloids, vincristine etc 6. BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS INVESTIGATION : Biosynthetic pathways are of primary and secondary metabolites. Some of the important pathways are Clavin ‘s cycle of photosynthesis, Shikimic acid pathway of aromatic compounds PowerPoint Presentation: Acetate hypothesis for antharacene glycosides Isoprenoid hypothesis for terpens 7.CULTIVATION AND COLLECTION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS : clove, cinchona , cinnamon, senna, opium, etc 8. PREPARATION OF HERBAL FORMULATIONS : churnas, asvas, aristas, leha, etc 9. DEVELOPMENT OF TISSUE CULTURED PLANTS PowerPoint Presentation: Physical parameters 1.Mosture content 2.Ash values 3.Swelling factor 4.Extractive values 5.Melting point 6.Solubility 7.Optical rotation 8.Viscosity Ash values: Ash values The residue remaining after incineration is the ash content of the drug.( inorganic salts of carbonates, phosphates, silicates of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) is known as ash content. Ash value is a criterion to judge the identity OR purity of the crude drug TYPES OF ASH VALUES: TYPES OF ASH VALUES 1.Total ash value 2.Acid insoluble ash value 3.Sulphated ash value 4. Water soluble ash value PowerPoint Presentation: Total ash value : Useful for detecting low grade products Useful for detecting exhausted products Useful for detecting excess of sandy Useful for detecting earthy matter with drug Determination : Determination 1.Weigh accurately about 3gms of the powdered drug in a tared silica crucible 2.Incinerate the powdered drug by gradually increasing the heat until free from carbon and cool. Keep it in desiccators 3. Weigh the ash and calculate the % of the total ash with reference to the air dried sample PowerPoint Presentation: Acid insoluble ash value : 1. Used for the determination of earthy matter present on roots, rhizomes, and also on the leaves 2. Crude drugs contain calcium oxalate crystals the amount may varies depending on the environmental conditions Determination: Determination 1. Boil the total ash obtained as above for 5 minutes with 25ml of dilute HCL 2.Filter and collect the insoluble matter on the ashless filter paper , wash the filter paper with hot water, ignite in tared crucible, cool and kept in desiccators 3.Weigh the residue and calculate the acid insoluble ash of the drug PowerPoint Presentation: Sulphated ash value : Used for the detection of low grade products Water soluble ash value : Used to detect either material exhausted by water or not ( Tea leaves, Ginger rhizomes) Swelling Factor: Swelling Factor Significances : Useful in the evaluation of crude drugs containing mucilage Useful for the detection of purity of the crude drug Determination: Determination 1. Transfer 1 gm of the seeds to a 25ml stoppered cylinder 2. Fill up to the 20ml mark on the cylinder with water. Agitate gently and occasionally during 24 hours and allowed to stand 3.Measure the volume occupied by the swollen seeds EXTRACTIVE VALUES: EXTRACTIVE VALUES Significances : 1.Useful for the evaluation especially when the constituents of the drugs can not be readily estimated by any other means 2.It also helps to indicate the nature of chemical constituents present in the drug 3. Also helps in the identification of adulterants TYPES : TYPES 1.Water soluble extractive values 2.Alcohal soluble extractive values 3.Ether soluble extractive values PowerPoint Presentation: 1.Water soluble extractive value is applied for the drugs which contain water soluble constituents such as tannins, sugars, plant acids and mucilage. 2.Alcohol soluble extractive value is applied for the drugs which contain alcohol soluble constituents such as tannins, resins and alkaloids Official method for the assay of myrrh & asafoetida PowerPoint Presentation: 3.Ether soluble extractive value is applied for the extraction of volatile oils, fixed oils and resins. 1.Volatile ether soluble extractive value 2.Non volatile ether soluble extractive value DETERMINATION: DETERMINATION Water soluble extractive value: 1 . Macerate about 5gm of the accurately weighed coarse powder with 100ml of chloroform water in a 100ml volumetric flask for 24 hours . 2. Shake frequently for first 6 hours 3. Filter rapidly through filter paper and evaporate 25ml of water extract to dryness in a tared flat-bottomed shallow dish. PowerPoint Presentation: 4. Dry the residue at 105 and weigh. Keep it in a desiccators 5. Dry the extract to constant weight ,finally , calculate the % W/W of Water soluble extractive value with reference to the air dried drug. PowerPoint Presentation: Alcohol soluble extractive values Macerate about 5gm of the accurately weighed coarse powder with 100ml of 90% alcohol in a 100ml stoppered flask for 24 hours . Shake frequently for first 6 hours Filter rapidly through filter paper and collect the filtrate evaporate 25ml of alcohol extract to dryness in a tared flat-bottomed shallow dish. PowerPoint Presentation: Dry the residue at 105 and weigh. Keep it in a desiccators Dry the extract to constant weight ,finally , calculate the % w/w of alcohol soluble extractive value with reference to the air dried drug. PowerPoint Presentation: SIGNIFICANCE: 1.The method is generally used when standardization is not done satisfactory by chemical or physical methods 2.When the quantity of the drug /sample are very less then the drugs are evaluated by biological methods PowerPoint Presentation: These methods are performed on living animals, isolating living organ and tissue, animal preparation, and micro-organism ( Bioassay) PowerPoint Presentation: Following method is used as 1.Anti inflammatory activity 2.Analgesic activity 3.Antipyretic activity 4.Anti ulcer activity 5.Antidiabetic activity 6.Anthelmintic activity on earth worms PowerPoint Presentation: 7.Cardiac activity- on frog and pigeon 8.Microbiological methods- living bacteria, yeast, molds are used for the assaying vitamins and to determine the activity of antibiotic drugs

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