Published on May 7, 2008
Introduction to Intergovernmental Organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations & Research Documentation.: Introduction to Intergovernmental Organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations & Research Documentation. ALR - International Law January 14, 2004 Intergovernmental Organizations (IGO’s) – a definition:: Intergovernmental Organizations (IGO’s) – a definition: An “association of States established by and based upon a treaty, which pursues common aims and which has its own special organs to fulfil particular functions within the organization.” Encyclopedia of Public International Law, p.1289. IGO’s can enter into agreements with other IGO’s or nation states. Typical Characteristics of “Classical” IGO’s:: Typical Characteristics of “Classical” IGO’s: Most have a legislative body that creates legal acts, such as resolutions and directives, that bind the IGO under int’l law. IGO’s may also have a dispute resolution mechanism to resolve conflicts b/n Member States. Many IGO’s also have an executive body to facilitate the IGO’s operations. Supranational Organizations:: Supranational Organizations: Executive Authority (commission). An Organ composed of States (council). A Parliamentary Assembly. A Court of Justice. Sometimes further organs with consultative powers. Legal Personality of IGO:: Legal Personality of IGO: Whether an international organization possesses legal personality in international law is a question of positive law and depends upon its constituent treaty. An international organization that possesses legal personality also has responsibility under international law. Nearly all international organizations are also legal persons under municipal law (capacity to own/dispose of property/litigate) Non-governmental Organizations (NGO’s):: Non-governmental Organizations (NGO’s): An international organization consisting of non-governmental representatives and individuals, a characteristic that distinguishes them from IGO’s. NGO’s have no international legal status; therefore, they do not enter into treaties or other international agreements, although they might promote such agreements. I. Research of IGO’s/NGO’s - Web Searching:: I. Research of IGO’s/NGO’s - Web Searching: Many International Organizations produce a variety of documents, ranging from treaties facilitated by IGOs to reports issued by NGOs. Searching for websites: .int / .org / .gov are common domain names (.int domain name reserved for int’l orgs). II. Research of IGO’s/NGO’s – Int’l Periodicals.: II. Research of IGO’s/NGO’s – Int’l Periodicals. International Organization (http://mitpress.mit.edu/io ); Table of Contents and abstracts are provided at the IO Website. Westlaw (INOG, 1995- )(Full-text). Journal of International Affairs (http://jia.sipa.columbia.edu/journal.html ); Selected articles available in full-text on JIA website; Westlaw (JIAF, 1995-98)(Full-text). International Legal Materials (http://www.asil.org/internati.htm ); Available on Lexis beginning with v.1 (1962), Westlaw (ILM) beginning with v.19 (1980), and via ASIL website beginning with v.36 (1997). III. Research of IGO’s/NGO’s – Periodical Indexes.: III. Research of IGO’s/NGO’s – Periodical Indexes. Index to Legal Periodicals & Books (http://www.hwwilson.com/databases/legal.cfm ). Westlaw (ILP). Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals (http://www.law.berkeley.edu/library/iflp ). Westlaw (IFLP). Legal Trac/LRI: Lexis (Law Rev./LRI) and Westlaw (LRI). PAIS International: (http://www.pais.org ). Directories and Research Guides:: Directories and Research Guides: Intergovernmental Organizations Websites by Subject: http://docs.lib.duke.edu/igo/subject.html . International Organization Information: http://www-libraries.colorado.edu/ps/gov/int/internat.htm . NGO Links: http://www.ngo.org/links/ . Lauterpacht Research Centre for Int’l Law: http://www.law.cam.ac.uk/rcil/orgns.htm. Union of International Associations Index of International Organization Web Sites: http://www.uia.org/website.htm . I. Representative IGO’s Online: Council of Europe (http://www.coe.int/ ).: I. Representative IGO’s Online: Council of Europe (http://www.coe.int/ ). Database of European Treaties. Committee of Ministers documents. European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) materials. Human Rights Documentation database (HUDOC). Commissioner for Human Rights. Parliamentary Assembly. Congress of Local and Regional Authorities Texts. Site of the Secretary General. II. Representative IGO’s Online: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (http://www.nato.int/. : II. Representative IGO’s Online: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (http://www.nato.int/. Basic Texts (formal agreements, key policy documents). Fact Sheets. Press Releases. Ministerial Communiques. Standardization Agreements. Other publications (including the NATO Handbook, NATO Update and various booklets and visual presentations). III. Representative IGO’s Online: World Trade Organization (http://www.wto.org/) .: III. Representative IGO’s Online: World Trade Organization (http://www.wto.org/) . Official documents (e.g. GATT). “Documents Online” provides a searchable and browsable database of the official documentation of the WTO. (http://docsonline.wto.org/?language=1 ). Panel and Appellate Body Reports. IV. Organization of American States (OAS) (http://www.oas.org/ ).: IV. Organization of American States (OAS) (http://www.oas.org/ ). General Assembly information. Treaties. Founding documents and other documents of current importance. Reference materials. Other publications and library links. IACD Digital Library: http://www.oas.org . I. Representative NGO’s Online: Amnesty International (http://www.amnesty.org ). : I. Representative NGO’s Online: Amnesty International (http://www.amnesty.org ). Works to promote human rights, as articulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Online Documentation Archive: http://web.amnesty.org/library/engindex . Access to Annual Reports, News Releases, and other international human rights documents, searchable by country, region, sub-region, or theme. II. Representative NGO’s Online: Int’l Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) (http://www.icbl.org ).: II. Representative NGO’s Online: Int’l Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) (http://www.icbl.org ). The ICBL works toward a ban on the use of antipersonnel landmines worldwide, passage of the Mine Ban Treaty, increased resources for victim assistance, and increased resources for de-mining operations. The web site provides the text of the mine ban treaty, index on landmines, and even landmine films on the Internet. III. Representative NGO’s Online: Int’l Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) (http://www.icrc.org/ ).: III. Representative NGO’s Online: Int’l Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) (http://www.icrc.org/ ). Established in 1863, the ICRC serves a humanitarian mission to protect the lives and dignity of victims of war, prevent internal violence, and to provide victims with assistance. Int’l Humanitarian Law pages (http://www.icrc.org/eng/ihl ). IHL Database (http://www.icrc.org/ihl ). National Implementation Database (http://www.icrc.org/ihl-nat ). International Review of the Red Cross. IV. Representative NGO’s Online: CARE (http://www.care.org ).: IV. Representative NGO’s Online: CARE (http://www.care.org ). Created in 1945 to provide emergency assistance to Europe, CARE International is a confederation of ten NGOs that deliver relief assistance and work to end global poverty through sustainable development. The website has a CARE newsroom, current press releases, Special Reports, and CARE publications. An Introduction to NAFTA legal research and materials:: An Introduction to NAFTA legal research and materials: **On Jan.1, 1994, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) established a single trade zone. Primary NAFTA resources:: Primary NAFTA resources: North American Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 1993, Pub.L.No. 103-182, 1993 USCCAN (107 Stat.) 2057. Legislative History at 2552. NAFTA text: final version, including supplemental agreements. (KDZ944.A41992.A2) (CCH 1994). NAFTA: final text, summary, legislative history and implementation directory. (KDZ944.A41992.A35) (Oceana Pub., 1994). Reams & Schultz, “NAFTA Legislative History…” (KDZ944.A41992.N676 2000). NAFTA Decisions:: NAFTA Decisions: Important to remember that the Agreement does not stand alone. The rulings of panels on the provisions of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA) have been incorporated into NAFTA; therefore, the rulings of all three Panels are important. NAFTA/FTA Panel Decisions:: NAFTA/FTA Panel Decisions: NAFTA Secretariat (http://www.nafta-sec-alena.org/DefaultSite/dispute/index_e.aspx?CategoryID=40). OAS Trade Division (http://www.sice.oas.org/DISPUTE/nafdispe.asp ). Lexis (Apr.1995-present, NAFDEC); Westlaw (1989-present, NAFTA-BIP). U.S. NAFTA Secretariat, U.S. section, Room 10601 14th & Constitution Aves., N.W., Washington DC 20230. Tel: (202)482-5438. GATT Decisions:: GATT Decisions: Adopted Panel Reports Within the Framework of GATT 1947 – http://www.sice.oas.org/DISPUTE/gatdispe.asp (1948-1994). Lexis (GTTWTO, Aug.1948-present); Westlaw (“WTO-DEC”)(GATT, 1948-1994; WTO, 1995-present). “SICE Foreign Trade Information System” - http://www.sice.oas.org/Indexe.asp . Basic Treatises on NAFTA:: Basic Treatises on NAFTA: Abbott, Frederick M. Law and policy of regional integration: The NAFTA and western hemispheric integration in the World Trade Organization system. (KDZ944.A41992.A73)(1995). Folsom, Ralph Haughwout. Understanding NAFTA and its international business implications. (KDZ944.A41992.F65) (1996). Glick, Leslie Alan. Understanding the North American Free Trade Agreement: Legal and Business Consequences of NAFTA (KDZ944.A41992.G58) (1994). NAFTA and Beyond: a New Framework for Doing Business in the Americas / Ed. Norton & Bloodworth (KDZ944.A41992.N32) (1995). Important NAFTA Looseleaf Services:: Important NAFTA Looseleaf Services: North American Free Trade Agreements, ed. Holbein & Musch (Oceana, KDZ944.A35.N61) (6 volumes). International Trade Reporter. Current Reports. (BNA, HF3000.I57). NAFTA Online:: NAFTA Online: NAFTA Secretariat – http://www.nafta-sec-alena.org/DefaultSite/home/index_e.aspx. NAFTANET – http://www.nafta.net/naftagre.htm . NAFTA Implementation Resource Guide – http://www.tradeport.org/ts/ntdb/nimp.html. NAFTA Dispute Settlement Procedures – http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/nafta-alena/dispgraph-en.asp . (See Handout). An Introduction to WTO legal research and materials:: An Introduction to WTO legal research and materials: **The World Trade Organization (WTO) first entered into force as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) on Jan.1948 as a multilateral instrument for 123 governments. Authoritative Bodies of the WTO:: Authoritative Bodies of the WTO: Contracting Parties; Council of Representatives; Specialist Standing Committees. Official Documents of the WTO:: Official Documents of the WTO: Basic Instruments & Selected Documents (BISD). Document Dissemination Facility (DDF) contains all publicly available documents distributed by the WTO since 1995. (http://docsonline.wto.org/gen_home.asp?language=1&_=1 ). Law and Practice of the World Trade Organization (Oceana, K4600.L38). Finding WTO Documents:: Finding WTO Documents: Analytical Index: Guide to GATT Law and Practice (1995, K4602.2.G84). Online: WTO via the Internet – http://www.wto.org. International Trade Administration Home Page (U.S. Dep’t of Commerce) – http://www.ita.doc.gov . Other Sources on the WTO:: Other Sources on the WTO: Pescatore, Pierre. Handbook of GATT Dispute Settlement. (K4602.2.P4). The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations: The Legal Texts. (K4603.1987.A4). The Texts of the Tokyo Round Agreements/GATT (K4603.A4.A46). WTO: Lexis and Westlaw - : WTO: Lexis and Westlaw - Westlaw – Database ID (WTO/GATT)(1994-present).. Lexis – “GATT Panel and World Trade Decisions”(1948-present); “World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement”(1996-present); and “GATT Basic Instruments and Selected Documents.” US Department of Commerce, Trade Compliance Center (for WTO issues): 202-219-3605.