Introduction to .Net FrameWork by Quontra Solutions

Information about Introduction to .Net FrameWork by Quontra Solutions

Published on November 3, 2014

Author: quontra123

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Introduction to .Net Framework By Quontra Solutions: Email : [email protected] Contact : 404-900-9988 WebSite : www.quontrasolutions.com Introduction to .Net Framework By Quontra Solutions Before .NET: Before .NET Windows GUI development: Win32 API, MFC, Visual Basic, COM Web development: ASP Java – “Write once, run anywhere.” Embrace and extend: Visual J++ Life As a C/Win32 API Programmer: Life As a C/Win32 API Programmer Traditional software development for the Windows. C developers are forced to contend with complex memory management and pointer arithmetic. It lacks the benefits provided by the object-oriented approach When you combine the thousands of global functions and data types defined by the Win32 API to an already formidable language, it is little wonder that there are so many buggy applications floating around today. Life As a C++/MFC Programmer: Life As a C++/MFC Programmer C++ is an object-oriented layer on top of C. Programmers benefit from the famed “pillars of OOP” (encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism). Microsoft Foundation Classes (MFC) provides a set of C++ classes that facilitate the construction of Win32 applications. It wraps a “sane subset” of the raw Win32 API behind a number of classes, magic macros, and numerous code-generation tools ( wizards ). Regardless of the helpful MFC, programming for Windows using C++ remains a difficult and error-prone experience Visual Basic 6.0 Programmer: Visual Basic 6.0 Programmer Ability to build complex user interfaces, code libraries, and data access logic with minimal fuss and bother. VB6 hides the complexities of the raw Win32 API from view using integrated code wizards, intrinsic data types, classes, and VB-specific functions. Not fully object-oriented No “is-a” relationships between types (i.e., no classical inheritance) No multithreaded applications unless you are willing to drop down to low-level Win32 API calls (which is complex at best and dangerous at worst). Life As a Java/J2EE Programmer: Life As a Java/J2EE Programmer Object oriented with syntactic roots in C++. Java cleans up many unsavory syntactical aspects of C++. Java provides programmers with a large number of predefined “packages” that contain various type definitions. Limited ability to access non-Java APIs. Little support for true cross-language integration. Not appropriate for many graphically or numerically intensive applications. A better approach for such programs would be to use a language such as C++ where appropriate. Life As a COM Programmer: Life As a COM Programmer Microsoft’s previous application development framework. reusable binary code. C++ programmers can build COM classes that can be used by VB6. Delphi programmers can use COM classes built using C. COM’s language independence is limited. COM has no support for classical inheritance). COM is extremely complex under the hood. The Active Template Library (ATL) provides a set of C++ classes, templates, and macros to ease the creation of COM types. Windows DNA Programmer: Windows DNA Programmer Microsoft has been adding more Internet-aware features into its family of operating systems and products. COM-based Windows Distributed interNet Applications Architecture (DNA) is quite complex. Due to the simple fact that Windows DNA requires the use of numerous technologies and languages (ASP, HTML, XML, JavaScript, VBScript, COM(+), and data access API like ADO). The complete maze…: The complete maze… Completely unrelated syntaxes. JavaScript has a syntax much like C, while VBScript is a subset of VB6. The result is a highly confused mishmash of technologies. Each language and/or technology has its own type system: An “int” in JavaScript is not quite the same as an “Integer” in VB6. .Net, the Rescuer: .Net, the Rescuer .NET OOP JVM GUI Web component-based design n-tier design .Net, the Rescuer: .Net, the Rescuer .Net provides: .Net provides Integrated environment Internet, Desktop , Mobile devices consistent object-oriented To provide a portable environment A managed environment What Is .NET: What Is .NET .NET is a framework New programming methodology .NET is platform independent / cross platform .NET is language-insensitive .NET is cross-platform: .NET is cross-platform APP.exe ? Win64 Win32 (XP,2K,98) WinCE Narrow view of .Net applications: Narrow view of .Net applications Operating System + Hardware .NET Framework .NET Application .Net Framework: .Net Framework .Net Architecture: .Net Architecture .NET architecture is: multi-language cross-platform based on the CLR, FCL, and JIT technology .NET components are packaged as assemblies .Net Architecture: .Net Architecture .Net Technical Architecture: .Net Technical Architecture Base Class Library Common Language Specification Common Language Runtime ADO.NET: Data and XML VB C++ C# Visual Studio.NET ASP.NET: Web Services and Web Forms JScript … Windows Forms Windows Forms Common Language Runtime: Common Language Runtime A common runtime for all .NET languages Common type system Common metadata Intermediate Language (IL) to native code compilers Memory allocation and garbage collection Code execution and security Over 15 languages supported today C#, VB, Jscript, Visual C++ from Microsoft Perl, Python, Smalltalk, Cobol, Haskell, Mercury, Eiffel, Oberon, Oz, Pascal, APL, CAML, Scheme, etc. Rational is working on Java compiler for CLR The CLR Architecture: The CLR Architecture Class Loader MSIL to Native Compilers (JIT) Code Manager Garbage Collector (GC) Security Engine Debug Engine Type Checker Exception Manager Thread Support COM Marshaler Base Class Library Support CLR Execution Model (Narrow): CLR Execution Model (Narrow) Code in VB.NET Code in C# Code in another .NET Language VB.NET compiler C# compiler Appropriate Compiler IL(Intermediate Language) code CLR just-in-time execution CLR Execution Model: CLR Execution Model VB Source code Compiler C++ C# Compiler Compiler Assembly IL Code Assembly IL Code Assembly IL Code Operating System Services Common Language Runtime JIT Compiler Native Code Managed code Unmanaged Component How CLR works?: How CLR works? CLR based execution: CLR based execution APP.exe other FCL components CLR JIT Compiler obj code OS Process Underlying OS and HW Core FCL Common Language Runtime: Common Language Runtime Execution Engine Compiles Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) into native code Handles garbage collection Handles exceptions Enforces code access security Handles verification Managed v. Unmanaged Implications of CLR execution model: Implications of CLR execution model Clients need CLR & FCL to run .NET apps available via Redistributable .NET Framework Design trade-off… managed execution (memory protection, verifiable code, etc.) portability: slower execution? CLR and JIT compiling: CLR and JIT compiling Indirect execution of .Net applications. All .NET languages compile to the same CIL. The CLR transforms the CIL to assembly instructions for a particular hardware architecture. This is termed jit’ing or Just-in-time compiling. Some initial performance cost, but the jitted code is cached for further execution. The CLR can target the specific architecture in which the code is executing, so some performance gains are possible . Advantages of CLR: Advantages of CLR Support for developer services (debugging) Interoperation between managed code and unmanaged code (COM, DLLs). Managed code environment Improved memory handling Improved “garbage collection” Advantages of CLR: Advantages of CLR JIT allows code to run in a protected environment as managed code. JIT allows the IL code to be hardware independent. CLR also allows for enforcement of code access security. Verification of type safety. Access to Metadata (enhanced Type Information) Common Language Infrastructure: Common Language Infrastructure CLI: CLI Common Language Infrastructure: Common Language Infrastructure CLI allows for cross-language development. Four components: Common Type System (CTS) Meta-data in a language agnostic fashion. Common Language Specification – behaviors that all languages need to follow. A Virtual Execution System (VES). Common Type System (CTS): Common Type System (CTS) A specification for how types are defined and how they behave . no syntax specified A type can contain zero or more members: Field Method Property Event Common Type System (CTS): Common Type System (CTS) CTS Data Types: C TS Data Types Common Data Types: Common Data Types CLR provides a set of primitive types that all languages must support. The data types include: Integer—three types 16/32/64 bits Float—two types: 32/64 bits Boolean and Character Date/time and Time span The primitive types can be collected into Arrays Structures Combination of the two Common Language Specification (CLS): Common Language Specification (CLS) Not all languages support all CTS types and features C# is case sensitive, VB.NET is not C# supports pointer types (in unsafe mode), VB.NET does not C# supports operator overloading, VB.NET does not CLS was drafted to promote language interoperability vast majority of classes within FCL are CLS-compliant Comparison to Java: Comparison to Java Hello.java Hello.class JVM compile execute Hello.vb Hello.exe CLR compile execute Source code Byte code CIL Source code Base Class Library @ FCL: Base Class Library @ FCL Base Class Library: Base Class Library Similar to Java’s System namespace. Used by all .NET applications Has classes for IO, threading, database, text, graphics, console, sockets/web/mail, security, cryptography, COM, run-time type discovery/invocation, assembly generation Framework Class Library @ BCL: Framework Class Library @ BCL Single consistent set of object oriented class libraries to enable building distributed web applications (Unified Classes) Built using classes arranged across logical hierarchical namespaces Work with all CLR languages No more “VBRun” or “MFC” divide Example: Example Intermediate Language (IL): Intermediate Language (IL) .NET languages are not compiled to machine code. They are compiled to an Intermediate Language (IL). CLR accepts the IL code and recompiles it to machine code. The recompilation is just-in-time (JIT) meaning it is done as soon as a function or subroutine is called. The JIT code stays in memory for subsequent calls. In cases where there is not enough memory it is discarded thus making JIT process interpretive . 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