Published on October 16, 2007
ISOTOPES: production and some applications : ISOTOPES: production and some applications Lev Inzhechik KURCHATOV INSTITUTE [email protected] XIV-th International Baksan School «Particles and Cosmology» April 16 - 21, 2007 ISOTOPES: production and some applications : ISOTOPES: production and some applications Lev Inzhechik KURCHATOV INSTITUTE [email protected] XIV-th International Baksan School «Particles and Cosmology» April 16 - 21, 2007 Slide3: Outline Isotopes: discovery, definition, denotations. Isotope stability, “island of stability” of super-heavy elements. Creation in the USSR of the gas-kinetic technologies of enrichment of U -235 and production of Pu-239 by means of nuclear reactor for the Soviet A-bomb in the middle of the XX-th century. Modern industry for isotopes production in Russia and in the world. New isotope selection methods being now under development. Prospects for production of isotope quantities of scale of kg and ton for different elements. Some applications of some isotopes for physics, for nuclear technic, etc. Milestones of history of isotopes: Milestones of history of isotopes 1896 — A.A. Becquerel (1852 – 1908. Nobel price of 1903). Discovery of radioactivity, start of nuclear physics — base for the isotope physics. 1910 — F. Soddy (1877 – 1956. Nobel price of 1921. Foreign Correspondent Member of RAS from 1924). Term “ISOTOPE” . Investigation of the isotopes properties and origin. 1911 — J.J. Thomson (1856 – 1940. Nobel price of 1906. Foreign Correspondent Member of RAS from 1913. Foreign Advisory Member of RAS from 1925). The first direct observation of the isotopes in experiments with the “cathode rays”. 1919 — F.W. Aston (1877 – 1945. Nobel price of 1922. Foreign Correspondent Member of RAS from 1924). Research for isotope phenomenon. The first mass-spectrometer. Curve of the nuclear “packing factors”. Slide5: Properties. Chemical and non-nuclear physical properties of isotopes of one element are the same or differ slightly because electron configuration determined mainly by the nuclear charge Z. Nuclear physics considers the isotopes as qualitatively different objects. Slide6: Formula of Hans Albrecht Bethe (1906-2005) and Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker (1912-1951): Ebonding= Cvol A – Csurf A2/3 – CCoul Z2 A-1/3 – Csymm (N-Z)2A-1 + Ccouple A- ε δ Cvol ≈ 15.75 MeV; Csurf ≈ 17.8 MeV; CCoul ≈ 0.710 MeV; Csymm ≈ 23.8 MeV; Ccouple ≈ 34 MeV; ε ≈ 3/4; δ= +1 (even Z, even N), 0 (odd A=Z+N), –1 (odd Z, odd N) Z N = A – Z “Magic numbers” of nucleons which correspond to completed shells: 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126, … Island of stabilityAccording to a theory there are super-heavy nuclei which are expected and have appeared actually ore stable then heavy actinides!: Island of stability According to a theory there are super-heavy nuclei which are expected and have appeared actually ore stable then heavy actinides! J. Nucl. Radiochem. Sci.,Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 5–8, 2002 Synthesis and Properties of Even-even Isotopes with Z = 110–116 in 48Ca Induced Reactions Yu. Ts. Oganessian (JINR, Dubna) Slide8: Abundance of stable isotopes of elements Nuclear explosive for A-bomb: Nuclear explosive for A-bomb Isotope technologies developed in the frame of the Atomic Projects 235U Principal possibility for creation of A-bomb on the base of 235 –th isotope of uranium was showed: in April of 1939 by physicists of Grate Brittan, Germany, and France; in April of 1939 in the USSR; in Autumn of 1939 in the USA. In 1940 R. Peierls 1 and O. Frisch 2 in the GB and independently Ya. Zel’dovich 3 and Yu. Khariton 4 in the USSR had estimated the “critical mass” of 235U needed for A-bomb. They calculated that the explosive chain reaction of the neutron induced fission is possible for monolithic piece of 235U of mass of the order of 1 kg. Isotopic content of native uranium is following: 234U — 0,0055%; T1/2 = 2.45 × 10 5 y 235U — 0,7200%; T1/2 = 7.038×10 8 y 238U — 99,2745%; T1/2 = 4.468×10 9 y 239Pu (T1/2 = 24.119×10 3 y) 239Pu for nuclear explosive can be produced by means of uranium nuclear rector by reaction of 238U + n 239U — 239Np — 239Pu. ________________________________ 1) Sir Rudolf Ernst Peierls (June 5, 1907, Berlin – September 19, 1995 Oxford) was a German-born British physicist. 2) Otto Robert Frisch (October 1, 1904 – September 22, 1979) Australian-Brotish physicist. 3) Yakov Borisovich Zel’dovich (March 08, 1914, Minsk – December 02, 1987 Moscow), Russian physicist, academician of RAS. 4 ) Yuly Borisovich Khariton (February 14/27, 1904 – December 19, 1996), Russian physicist, academician of RAS. 1944. Igor Kurchatov is writing a letter to Lavrenty Beria about, in particularly, necessity to produce in the USSR enriched uranium-235.: 1944. Igor Kurchatov is writing a letter to Lavrenty Beria about, in particularly, necessity to produce in the USSR enriched uranium-235. Igor Vasil’evich Kurchatov (January 12, 1903, Ufa region – February 07, Moscow, 1960), academician of AS USSR, scientific leader of the Soviet Atomic Project Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria (March 29, 1889, Merkheuli – December 12, 1953, Moscow) Vice Chairman of the government of the USSR, minister of internal affairs (chief of “KGB”), administrative head of the Soviet Atomic Project The letter of I. Kurchatov to L. Beria of September 29, 1944 Phrase about selection of isotopes (of uranium — L.I.) is marked : The letter of I. Kurchatov to L. Beria of September 29, 1944 Phrase about selection of isotopes (of uranium — L.I.) is marked Slide12: Born 28.03.1908, Zhagory. Dead 28.12.1984, Moscow Corresponding member of RAS since 29.09.1943 – Division of Physical-Mathematical Sciences Academician of RAS since 23.10.1953 – Division of Physical-Mathematical Sciences Director of the “Department of Devices of Thermal Control” of the “Laboratory No 2” founded 15.01.1944 Now — Institute of Molecular Physics in structure of the Russian Research Center “Kurchatov Institute” By a comission of I. Kurchatov Kikoin was a scientific head and administrative leader of R&D activity for creation of gas-kinetic technology for enrichment of 235U needed for U A-bomb. Firstly, the gas diffuse method was developed and tested in the lab scale under his direct leadership. Then, he was a scientific director of the project of creation of the U enrichment industry. Next stage of his activity was a leadership af development and introduction in the industry of the centrifuge technology of the isotope selection. KIKOIN Isaak Konstantinovich (Kushelevich) Physical principle of gas-diffusion selection of isotopes: Physical principle of gas-diffusion selection of isotopes Theoretical limit of selection factor of a unit selector: ____________________________________ 1951. Theory of the diffusion selecting machine and of cascade of separators — S. Sobolev, Ya. Smorodinsky 1950-52. Theory of process of selection of gaseous mixtures inside porous mediums — Yu. Kagan Working gas is uranium hexafluoride UF6 Triple point — 64,05 С Vapor pressure — 80 mm Hg at 20 С 800 mm Hg at 60 С Advantage — fluoride has the only stable isotope 19F Disadvantages of the diffuse technology — high energy consumption, low selection factor of unit device. To enrich 235U from 0.7% up to 80% (minimal explosion condition) cascades of a lot of separators are to be used. Effective cascade should be assembled of separators of different standard sizes (of different UF6 flux for different phases of the separation process) equipped by corresponding compressors. Slide14: Thickness – 0,01 mm Radius of pours – 0,01 μ Pressure – up to 300 mm Hg Square – 400 m2 Resource without regeneration – 10 y Diffuse separators are united in cascades up to 1600 stages in each For pumping of UF6 super-sound* compressors were created * of productivity from 8 g/s up to 25 kg/s and up to 60 m3/s (axial) ________________________ * Sound velocity of UF6 is 85 m/s Assembly of pipe filters (UrE-CC) The first diffuse cascades URAL ELECTROCHEMICAL INTEGRATED PLANT Slide15: Grope of gas-diffuse separators URAL ELECTROCHEMICAL INTEGRATED PLANT Physical principle of electromagnetic (mass-spectrometric) separation of isotopes : Physical principle of electromagnetic (mass-spectrometric) separation of isotopes Accessible ion current which is limited by defocusing effect owing to volume charge of the ion beam, is of tens of mA. 235U productivity of a single machine if natural isotope mixture of uranium separated — tens of mg per day Radius R of trajectory of a ion of mass M and of energy E in magnetic field H is: The first Soviet and European nuclear reactor for controllable chain reaction of fission of 235U: The first Soviet and European nuclear reactor for controllable chain reaction of fission of 235U Здание реактора Ф-1 Kurchatov Institute Surface part of building of the “Ф1” (F1) reactor Graphite brick masonry of the reactor “Ф1” (F1) Diameter of active zone — 6 m Mass of uranium — 50 тon Mass of graphite — 500 тon 25.12.46 I. Kurchatov had actuated the reactor “Ф1” Nuclear explosive for the first soviet A-bombs: Nuclear explosive for the first soviet A-bombs Department «К» Nuclear reactor “Ф-1” (F-1) Physical start-up 26.12.1946 Technology for production of 239Pu I. Kurchatov Lab model of electromagnetic separator 1947 1943 Department «А» Technology for electromagnetic selection of 235U L. Artsimovich 235U 90% Plants “418”. Mass of electromagnet = 6000 tons up-enrichment: 06.1948 - 02.1949 Plant “Д-4” Diffuse plants 1950. Pre-enrichment of 235U up to 75% Khariton Julii Borisovich: Khariton Julii Borisovich 27.02.1904, St. Peterburg — 18.12.1996, Arzamas Corresponding member of RAS since 04.12.1946 – Division of Physical-Mathematical Sciences Academician of RAS since 23.10.1953 – Division of Physical-Mathematical Sciences Scientific head of Federal Nuclear Center “Arzamas-16” Chief-designer of nuclear weapon J. Khariton and the museum model of the 1-st soviet A-bomb «РДС-1» Technical requirements for A-bomb «РДС-1» signed by J. Khariton Slide20: 1-st soviet 239Pu A-bomb “РДС-1”, museum model, “Arzamas-16” Photo of nuclear explosion made during the 1-st in the USSR test of A-bomb. August 29, 1949, 07-00. Explosion power - 22 kton of trotyl equivalent. Tower used for the test explosion, 37.5 m Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site Slide21: Firsts Soviet Nuclear Tests 1-st A-bomb 29. 08.1949 239Pu fission 22 kton [http://www.poligon.kz/poligon.shtml] Slide22: http://www.poligon.kz/poligon.shtml USSR Air-dynamic selection of isotopes: Air-dynamic selection of isotopes Scheme of air-dynamic separator using E.W. Becker’s jet nozzle for selection of gases For pure UF6 the maximal speed of flow is less than 100 m/s. To increase the speed the UF6 is diluted by H2 or He. Optimal parameters: Gas mixture: UF6 (4%) + H2 Input pressure 0,26 bar (26 кПа) Factor of expansion 2,1 Factor of flow separation 0,25 Isotope selection factor 1,48 10-2 Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube separates a compressed gas into hot and cold streams Like the diffusion technology the air-dynamic separators are to be combined into the cascades and to be equipped by the compressors. The processes are not used industrially. Gas centrifuge for selection of isotopes: Gas centrifuge for selection of isotopes Cascade of the centrifuges does not need in compressors. The Pitot pipes for the fractions outputs give an extra-pressure which is enough to transport the gas to the next centrifuges. The selection effect of the centrifuge depend the absolute molecular mass difference. Thus, it is effective for any heavy elements. The longer centrifuge, the higher its productivity but ... Centrifuge is the most effective gas-dynamic separator: Problem of “critical frequency” of spinning of the centrifuge rotor: Problem of “critical frequency” of spinning of the centrifuge rotor At spinning up of the long rotor of the centrifuge there is a problem of trouble-free passing of resonances, which can take place, if the rotating frequency coincides with a frequency of the own bend oscillations of the rotor. This resonance frequency is called “critical”. “Sub-critical” or “before-critical” centrifuges work at a frequency of rotor spinning being less than the first bending resonance. The rotor length and rotating speed of such a centrifuge have to be limited to avoid the problem. “Super-critical” or “above-critical” centrifuges rotate with a frequency which is more than the resonance frequency of its oscillations of bend. The resonance problem is overcame by special design means. It is a key “know-how” for successful development of the long centrifuges. Development of centrifugal technology for selection of isotopes : Development of centrifugal technology for selection of isotopes 1895 German phys-chemist G. Bredig, (1868 – 1944, foreign correspondent of RAS from 1929) studied possibility selection of gases with different molecular masses by means of a centrifuge. 1919 Liderman and Aston proposed to use this idea for selection of isotopes. In 30-ths in USA professor Bims and his collaborators carried out successfully experiments with the gas centrifuge. 1940 Uranium Committee of the USSR supported a project of Lange (Khar’kov, Ukraine) on creation of the horizontal centrifuge for selection of uranium isotopes. 1941 German scientists Martin and Kun showed theoretically good perspectives for using of the counter-flow centrifuge. 1951 Formula of Kohen for the centrifuge. 1946-54 Zippe, Steenbeck (1904 – 1981, foreign correspondent member of RAS from 1966) , Sinev, Artsimovich (sci. leader), Kamenev had created the vertical centrifuge with short hard rotor (of sub-critical type). Slide27: 1958 Zippe, Steenbeck, and Shiffel after their leaving from the USSR had patented (No 10715997 of 11.11.1957, USA, GB, FRG, Netherlands, ... ) a design of a gas centrifuge which is very similar to design that was developed in Russia with their participation. The USSR had not challenged the priority owing to privacy. From 1953 the USSR developed (I. Kikoin — scientific head) industrial cascades of centrifuge for enrichment of the 235U. Later the short sub-critical centrifuges replaced diffusion machines. 1962-64 In the USSR the first centrifugal plant for 235U enrichment started to work. 1970 International consortium “URENCO” (Uranium Enrichment Company) was founded by GB, Netherlands, and FRG. The first cascades were equipped by short centrifuges of the type patented by Zippe and colleagues. Now “URENCO” uses long overcritical centrifuges. Russia exploits short subcritical centrifuges which has been well advanced to be effective economically and extremely reliable — their recourse exceeds 20 years. Development of centrifugal technology for selection of isotopes Slide28: Ural Electrochemical Integrated Plant Panorama of a module of centrifugal manufacture for stable isotope selection Centrifuges Slide29: н Centrifuge cascades of URENCO Jalanise centrifuges Centrifuges of USA Slide30: Main produsers. Kilogram Separative Work Unit measures the quantity of separative work (indicative of energy used in enrichment) when feed and product quantities are expressed in kilograms. SWUs, kg SW, or kg UTA (from the German Urantrennarbeit). Starting with 100 kilograms of natural uranium, it takes about 60 kg SW to produce 10 kilograms of uranium enriched in U-235 content to 4.5%. In fact, total used capacity is ≈8 millions of kg SW. World industry for production of low enriched uranium Productivities of plants1 in millions of Kilogram Separative Work Unit2 Slide31: The most usable processes are: RECTIFICATION ISOTOPE EXCHANGE These methods for isotope production are researched and developed in the Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow, http://www.muctr.ru/ The technology is used for industrial production isotopes of light elements: H, Li, B, C, N, O, ... Tower with rectification columns for enrichment of 13C INSTITUTE OF MOLECULAR PHYSICS OF KURCHATOV INSTITUTE Slide32: Ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) for selection of isotopes Slide33: Laser (optical) methods for selection of isotopes AVLIS — atom vapor laser isotope selection based on selective poly-photon ionization of atomic vapor MLIS — molecular laser isotope selection based on selective excitation of molecules by photons. The process is followed by essential difference of reactionary capability excited and not excited molecules. Absorption spectra of UF6 at temperatures normal ultralow Slide34: AVLIS-setup for isotope separation of Kurchatov Institute Slide36: AVLIS equipment in LLNL MLIS plant for selection of isotopes of carbon: MLIS plant for selection of isotopes of carbon Productivity 15 kg/y 13С 3050% 150 kg/y 12С 99,99% CO2 Lasers: Frequency 600 Hz Pulse Energy 3 J Pulse Duration ~ 200 ns Wave Length 9,410,8 m Gas mixture СО2:N2:He (1:1:4) Power supply 20 kWt KALININGRAD Russia The equipment was developed by TRINITY http://www.triniti.ru/ at a support of Gazprom Comparison of methods for selection of stable isotopes: Comparison of methods for selection of stable isotopes Methods for selection of stable isotope of elements: Methods for selection of stable isotope of elements Slide40: Some fields of applications of stable isotopes Solid state physics Micro- electronics High thermal conductivity of mono-isotopic crystals ? Neutron scattering Moessbauer effect Investigations of material Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of isotopically enriched crystals: Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of isotopically enriched crystals Gemanium kurchaton Institute Galium arsenide International Avogadro constant project — measuring isotope ratios of silicon: International Avogadro constant project — measuring isotope ratios of silicon http://www.irmm.jrc.be/html/activities/international_Avogadro_constant_project/index.htm: “The kilogram is the only remaining base Si unit defined by a man-made artefact. For many years now research groups have been trying to find a way to define it in a more independent and easily reproducible manner, like the other units. An international cooperation is focussing on a solution based on determining the Avogadro constant. The Avogadro constant can be determined via the mass of a specified number of atoms. If the uncertainty on the Avogadro constant is sufficiently small, this definition can be inverted to define the mass - the unit kg - via a known number of particles. The approach chosen involves measurements of the dimensions, lattice parameters, mass and isotopic composition of single crystals of silicon, one of the purest materials available. IRMM can determine the isotopic composition of silicon with the accuracy and precision required, and is at the moment the only laboratory in the world able to conduct such measurements.” Becker, P., Bettin, H., Danzebrink, H., Gläser, M., Kuetgens, U., Nicolaus, A., Schiel, D., De Biévre, P., Valkiers, S., Taylor , P., Determination of the Avogadro constant via the silicon route, Metrologia 40 (2003)5 271-287 Fujii, K., Waseda, A., Kuramoto, N., Mizushima, S., Tanaka, M., Valkiers, S., Taylor, P., Kessel, R., De Bièvre, P., Evaluation of the molar volume of silicon crystals for a determination of the Avogadro constant, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement 52 (2003)2 646-651 Slide43: Allowed 2– и 2+ transitions of nuclei *) The ν-induced 2β decay of 100 Mo was proposed to detect neutrino of energy >168 keV: L.V. Inzhechik, Yu.V. Gaponov, S.V. Semenov. Izv. RAN, ser. fiz. v. 64, p. 38, 2000 H. Ejiri et al. Phys. Rev Lett. v 85, p. 2917, 2000 Slide44: Be successful, using isotopes in your experiments!