Islamic Empires 2

Information about Islamic Empires 2

Published on January 7, 2008

Author: Mertice

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Islamic Empires:  Islamic Empires A Brief History of Islam:  A Brief History of Islam The religion of Islam was founded in, what is today, Saudi Arabia. Pre Islamic Arabia:  Pre Islamic Arabia Caravan Culture – Trade central to economy Tribal organization -- alliances and client states Pilgrimage to Mecca essential to economic and political success of leading tribes (Quraysh). Violent, warrior states based on vendetta culture ghazu (raids) on caravans Harsh ethic of desert warfare, extermination of enemies = no mercy Patriarchal: women veiled & segregated, no property, female infanticide, child marriage The Prophet Mohammed:  The Prophet Mohammed Founded Islam during his lifetime (570-632 CE) He was an orphan who grew up with his uncle, a caravan trader, near the city of Mecca. Claimed he received a divine revelation at the age of 40 from the Angel Gabriel. The Koran (Qur’an):  The Koran (Qur’an) Muslims believe… The Koran is the direct word of God (Allah) Mohammed was illiterate but remembered the messages and recited them to scribes in Arabic. It took 23 years to collect all the verses. The Prophet Mohammed:  The Prophet Mohammed Married a rich widow who was much older to him named Khadijah when he was 25. This was a wise business decision because it insured Mohammed great wealth and prestige in the community. The Wives of Mohammed…:  The Wives of Mohammed… He would later marry several other wives, as was the custom of the day. Muslim men are today only allowed 4. Mohammed married the widows and orphans of regions that were conquered in war to save them from starvation and destitution. Mohammed’s second wife, Ayesha, was only nine when he married her according to some accounts. She was said to be his favorite wife and gathered an army to defend his successor. The Islamic Community:  The Islamic Community Mohammed began to preach in public in Mecca. He taught his followers that there was only one God. He preached against those who worshipped idols in the Ka’aba. Slide9:  Mohammed was seen as a threat to the rulers of the city who were pagans… his own tribesmen, the Quraysh. If they removed their idols from the Ka’aba there would be no more pilgrims, no more trade, and no more wealth. Mohammed, his family, and followers were mocked, threatened with death and persecuted. Some of his enemies even tried to assassinate the Prophet. Persecution The Hijra:  The Hijra Mohammed and his followers fled Mecca and escaped to the city of Yathrib (Medina). This Hijra (flight) marks the beginning of the Islamic Calendar Importance of Hijra:  Importance of Hijra Moving to Yathrib (Medina) was mor than a change of address… Saved the Ummah from total extinction Allowed the implementation of a new polity – Quranic ideal of a state with Muhammed as head of many tribes. Put the religious community (ummah) above the sacred blood ties of tribe and clan. Slide12:  Mohammed led raids on Meccan caravans and rallied an army to defend Medina from a Meccan attack. The Muslims conquered many neighboring tribes. Mohammed and the Jews:  Mohammed and the Jews Contract with Jewish tribes in Medina Jewish tribes betray Mohammed -- two tribes expelled. The Massacre of Qurayzah – 700 men killed, women and children sold as slaves. 7th century Arabia = no mercy for traitors Mohammed NOT ANTI SEMITIC. Part of the process of Mohammed’s consolidation of power at his base in Medina over a period of 3-5 years. Return to Mecca:  Return to Mecca Return to Mecca:  Return to Mecca Muhammad marched on Mecca with an enormous force, said to number 10,000 men. He took the city without bloodshed. Most Meccans converted to Islam and Muhammad destroyed the idols in the Ka’aba. Muslim pilgrims re-inact the return to Mecca every year by performing “the Hajj” Slide16:  Approximately 2-3 million pilgrims from all over the world make the Hajj to the Ka’aba in Mecca each year. Devout Muslims turn towards the Ka’aba in Mecca to pray five times each day. Slide17:  Pilgrims circle the Ka’aba 7 times in a clockwise motion and perform other rituals of devotion during the Hajj. Warrior or Preacher?:  Warrior or Preacher? For most of the sixty-three years of his life, Muhammad was a merchant, then a preacher. He took up the sword late in his life. He was a warrior for only ten years. Who will be Mohammed’s successor? The Caliph debate:  Who will be Mohammed’s successor? The Caliph debate Abu Bakr vs. Muhammad's father-in law and close friend Ali Mohammed’s cousin and son-in-law Supported by Sunni Muslims Supported by Shi’a Muslims The “schism” or divide happened during the First Islamic Civil War 656–661 CE The First Four Caliphs:  The First Four Caliphs Elected Abu Bakr as first Caliph (632-34), unites Arabia.. Umar (634-44): Unites ummah through outward aggression (to replace ghazu economics) – Syria, Egypt and Iraq. Professional soldiers and garrison towns “Soldiers Rights” vs. Central Authority Uthman (644-56) – Arabs move into Byzantine territory, across North Africa More tension, less plunder, soldiers exhausted. NEPOTISM Mutiny, assassination of Uthman = call for Ali to be new caliph. Slide21:  Before his death in 632, Muhammad had established Islam as a social and political force and had unified most of Arabia. A few decades after his death, his successors had united all of Arabia, and conquered Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Armenia, and much of North Africa. First Civil War (Fitnah):  First Civil War (Fitnah) 656-661 Muawiyyah (Uthman’s kinsmen) vs. Ali (the son-in-law of the prophet). Battle of the Camel (Aisha anti Ali) War ends with arbitration, Ali to except M. as Caliph M. proclaims himself Caliph in Jerusalem. Ali is murdered by rebels in 661, leaving his son Hasan as possible Caliph. M. moves capital to Damascus, Syria. Kharijites:  Kharijites “the seceders” – from Arabic word ‘to go out’ They first emerged in the late 7th century AD, concentrated in today's southern Iraq, and are distinct from the Sunnis and Shiites. Rebelled against Ali when he accepted the arbitration between himself and Muawiyyah. Felt betrayed by Ali and murdered him in 661. First Civil War continued…:  First Civil War continued… 1st Umayyad Caliph: Muawiyyah (661-80), strong govenor, unified ummah under strong administration. Umayyad Dynasty rule 661-750 M’s son Yazid inherits caliphate (no-no!) 680 and the second son of Ali, Husain, is massacred in Iraq by Ummayads with all the women and children of his household. The prophet’s own grandchildren slaughtered by Muslims! Sunni vs. Shi’a:  Sunni vs. Shi’a Sunni short for Ahl Al-Sunna wa al-Jamah = the year of the jamiyat or the year of the 1st Muslim Civil War that ended with Ali accepting the peace treatry… Shi’a means the party of Ali. The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus :  The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus Second Civil War:  Second Civil War Yazid dies 683. Al-Zubayr challenges Umayyads and starts Second Civil War: 683-692 Al-Zubayr in Mecca, can’t take Syria or Egypt Marwan I (r. 684-685) elected Caliph For short time, Zubayr’s family ruled Iraq. Marwan’s son, Malik, reconquered Iraq and defeated Al-Zubayr by bombarding Mecca! Slide28:  Today, the majority of the world’s Muslims are Sunni. Iran and Iraq are the only countries in the world where most the Muslims are Shi’a. The people of Iran are Persian (not Arabic) and in Iraq most people are of Arab descent. The Abbasid Dynasty:  The Abbasid Dynasty The Umayyads were overthrown in the east by the Abbasid dynasty after their defeat in the Battle of the Zab in 750, following which most of the clan was massacred by the Abbasids. An Umayyad prince, Abd-ar-rahman I, took over the Muslim territory in Al-Andalus (Hispania) and founded a new Umayyad dynasty there. The Abbasid Dynasty:  The Abbasid Dynasty It seized power in 750, when it finally defeated the Umayyads in battle, and flourished for two centuries, but slowly went into decline with the rise to power of the Turkish army they had created, the Mamluks. Ended 1258. A number of medieval thinkers and scientists living under Islamic rule played a role in transmitting Greek, Hindu, and other pre-Islamic knowledge to the Christian West. They contributed to making Aristotle known in Christian Europe. In addition, the period saw the recovery of much of the Alexandrian mathematical, geometric and astronomical knowledge, such as that of Euclides and Claudius Ptolemy. These recovered mathematical methods were later enhanced and developed by other Islamic scholars The Umayyads of Cordoba (Spain):  The Umayyads of Cordoba (Spain) The Umayyads of Cordoba (Spain):  The Umayyads of Cordoba (Spain) Islamic Spain 756-1031 Threatened by Fatimids – m=Muslim rivals of Cairo in 10th century For 100 years, the Caliph of Córdoba ruled over Spain and North Africa. Scholarship, science, art, music and medicine Empire crumbles into small fiefdoms over time and overcome by Christians… The Reconquista (Reconquest) refers to the liberation of the Iberian Peninsula from Muslim rule, conducted from 718 to 1492. The Alahambra, 1248-1354:  The Alahambra, 1248-1354 Court of the Lions, Alahambra:  Court of the Lions, Alahambra Granada in Al Andalus… Last stronghold of The Moors in Iberia. Isabelle and Feridnand, 1492 The Christians called Santiago their protector saint (today he is still the patron of Spain) under the rubric of Santiago Matamoros ("St. James the Moor-killer"). :  The Christians called Santiago their protector saint (today he is still the patron of Spain) under the rubric of Santiago Matamoros ("St. James the Moor-killer"). Fatimid Dynasty:  Fatimid Dynasty Shi’a dynasty ruled much of North Africa from CE 5 January 910 to 1171. The Fatimids had their origins in the Tunisia area ("Ifriqiya"), but after the conquest of Egypt ca. 970, they moved their capital there: CAIRO Tolerant to Sunni’s, Jews, Christians… Empire spread to middle east, eaten away by Turks, the Crusades, finally absorbed into Abbasid in 1171. Slide38:  The Five Pillars of Islam The Five Pillars of Islam:  The Five Pillars of Islam 1) Shahadah: Declaration of Faith There is no god but Allah, and Mohammed is His Prophet. The Five Pillars of Islam:  The Five Pillars of Islam 2) Salah: Prayer 5 times daily (facing Mecca) The Five Pillars of Islam:  3) Sawm: Fasting during the month of Ramadan The Five Pillars of Islam Abstaining from drinking, eating, smoking, sexual intercourse and other worldly pleasures… The Five Pillars of Islam:  The Five Pillars of Islam 4) Zakah: Giving alms (donations) to charity The Five Pillars of Islam:  The Five Pillars of Islam 5) Hajj: The pilgrimage to Mecca Performance of the Hajj at least once in one's lifetime is obligatory to all who are physically and financially able to undertake it. Slide44:  Key concepts Key concepts:  Key concepts Shariah Law: Muslim law based on Quran, Hadith, and community consensus. The Hadith: traditions related to the sayings and doings of Mohammed. Key concepts:  Key concepts Madrassah: university Key concepts:  Key concepts Jizya: Tax on non-Muslim males in Islamic Empires. Tax = TOLERANCE::  Tax = TOLERANCE: The Ottoman Empire organized society around the concept of the millet, or autonomous religious community. The nonMuslim "People of the Book" (Christians and Jews) owed taxes to the government; in return they were permitted to govern themselves according to their own religious law in matters that did not concern Muslims. The religious communities were thus able to preserve a large measure of identity and autonomy. Key concepts:  Key concepts “the People of the Book”: Jews, Christians, Muslims who all share common creation stories (Adam and Eve), prophets (Abraham and Moses) and one god (monotheism). Key concepts:  Key concepts Muslims believe Jesus was a wise teacher, sage and prophet (but not divine). One of the books in the Quran is named “Maryam” after Mary and tells the story of Jesus’ birth. Key concepts:  Key concepts Jihad: The Struggle to live a Muslim life. Key concepts:  Key concepts Women and Islam The Great Muslim Empires:  The Great Muslim Empires Ottoman (1362-1915)based in Annatolia Mughal (1526-1857) based in South Asia Safavid (1501-1740) based in Persian plateau Slide55:  Ottoman Empire Safavid Empire:  Safavid Empire Mughal Empire:  Mughal Empire

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