Published on May 22, 2013
Israeli Independence : Israeli Independence Arab-Israeli War of Independence 1948-1949 Objectives:: Objectives: How did the Arab-Israeli War of 1948 affect the region of the middle east? What were the effects of the Arab-Israeli War on the Palestinians? What were the effects of the Arab-Israeli War on the Israelis? Roots of the Conflict : Roots of the Conflict To the Jews, their claims to the land go back 3,000 years ago. They were forced into exile: Diaspora Other descendants of Canaan were co-existing with the Jews in the 2 nd Century To Palestinians the land has belonged to them since the Jews were driven out Arabs fully conquered the area in the 7 th Century Ottoman Empire in control in the 14 th Century Zionism: Zionism Jews continued to want a nation of their own and this movement became known as Zionism Being safe from persecution was the goal Theodor Herzl, 1896: “The Jewish State” arguing for a Jewish homeland in the Holy land Conflicting agreements--WWI: Conflicting agreements--WWI Sykes-Picot Agreement British promise to support the independence of the Arabs if they joined WWI against the Ottoman Empire June 1916 Arabs declared war Balfour Declaration Britain needed financial support for WWI—looked to the Jews/Zionist to help finance the war. Declaration supported the idea of creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine WWI: WWI These conflict agreements sow the seeds of the Arab-Israeli Conflict By the end of the war Great Britain controls most of the Middle East League of Nations establishes Mandate of Palestine Mandate: League of Nations governs the area until it’s ready for independence Palestinians and Jews lobby Great Britain to form their own separate state British Mandate of Palestine : British Mandate of Palestine Immigration: Immigration 1919: 35,000 Jews come back to Palestine 1924: Another wave, this one with 60,000 Jews, comes to Palestine. The Jews began to buy land in large pieces for the new “Israelis” to settle on But they were not moving into an abandoned territory! How will Arabs react to Jewish migration? WWII Ends… : WWII Ends… Jews begin flocking to the Holy Land in large numbers from Europe and North Africa Jews settling in Palestine was a “moral response” to the Holocaust The British try to resist this migration but this only increases Jewish fervor By 1947, Great Britain seeks help from the United Nations Conflict : Conflict Tension emerges because both the Arabs and the Zionist want their own country. Why do they both want their own nation in this specific place? UN Recommendation : UN Recommendation August 31, 1947 UN recommends Palestine be split in half This would create two countries Jerusalem would be controlled by the U.N. In Nov. this was approved U.N. General Assembly Jewish Migration to Israel: Jewish Migration to Israel By 1947 Jews made up 1/3 of the population in Palestine U.N. Partition Plan: U.N. Partition Plan November 1947, the U.N. partitioned Palestine into two states, one Jewish and one Arab Arabs disagreed with the inequality of land distribution (Israel: 56% of land with only 32% of Pop. Jews only had 7% of the land before! Reactions : Reactions Zionist were generally accepting of the Partition plan, but Arabs responded with anger Bloody fighting and terrorist acts erupt between Arabs and Zionists Britain turned a blind eye to the fighting May 14th 1948: May 14 th 1948 Israel declares its independence State recognized the boundaries of the partition plan The Jews and Zionists finally have a homeland to call their own in Palestine that was recognized by the world David Ben-Gurion declaring Israeli Independence. -Pictured on the wall is Theodor Herzl, founder of modern Zionism: David Ben-Gurion declaring Israeli Independence. -Pictured on the wall is Theodor Herzl, founder of modern Zionism How would Arabs and particularly Palestinians feel about this???: How would Arabs and particularly Palestinians feel about this??? One day later, the celebrations would come to an end… : One day later, the celebrations would come to an end… May 15th 1948: May 15 th 1948 Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria all invaded Israel the night of it’s declaration of independence The Arab-Israeli War has begun! PowerPoint Presentation: Palestinian refugees leaving Israel for Lebanon following Israeli declaration of independence Israel feared a Second Holocaust: Israel feared a Second Holocaust Israel assumed worst-case scenario and planned/trained accordingly Main goal was to survive the attacks of the Arab States As the war went on, Israel recognized an opportunity to not only defend territory but gain land from their enemies Israel’s army swelled in size during 1948 as more than 10,000 immigrants came to Israel a month Initial strength 29,677 4 June 40,825 17 July 63,586 7 October 88,033 28 October 92,275 2 December 106,900 23 December 107,652 30 December 108,300 Israel gains momentum: Israel gains momentum By spring of ’49, the Arab army only had 55,000+ soldiers to Israel’s 115,000+ By fall of 1949, Israel had gained air superiority which further shifted momentum Israel’s armed forces were superior in number and tactical preparedness. Why was Israel Successful?: Why was Israel Successful? The Jews were: Better organized Had fought with the British during WWII Zealous Larger in number (1.5x more Jews than Arabs) Palestinians were: Uncoordinated Leaders were corrupt Powerful Palestinians had been killed/exiled Arabs and Palestinians not always on same page Armistices All around: Armistices All around Israel signs separate armistices with… Egypt – February 24 th, 1949 Lebanon – March 23 rd, 1949 Jordan – April 3 rd, 1949 Syria – July 20 th , 1949 These armistices left Israel looking like this… How things worked out for the Palestinian Arabs: How things worked out for the Palestinian Arabs Impacts--Jews: Impacts--Jews Jews have a homeland Israel who was attacked, gained more land than was originally allotted to them in the first Partition Plan (3/4 of Palestine) Shared control of Jerusalem with Jordan Defeated five enemies Lost around 6,000 people Israeli nationalism grows in strength Impacts--Palestinians: Impacts--Palestinians Palestinian Arabs who were the attackers, are left with far less land than what they were given in the Partition Plan Palestinians flee to refugee camps Arab nations take over what the Palestinians did have Lost 10,000-15,000 people Hatred for Israel grows How is this war different from The Korean War?? How about likenesses?: How is this war different from The Korean War?? How about likenesses? Questions to Consider:: Questions to Consider: Describe the roots of the Arab-Israeli conflict. What caused the Arab-Israeli War? How did the Arab-Israeli War of 1948 affect the region of the middle east? What were the effects of the Arab-Israeli War on the Palestinians? What were the effects of the Arab-Israeli War on the Israelis? Let’s reflect…Shall We??: Let’s reflect…Shall We?? You’re a Palestinian… How might you feel once this war ends in 1949? Why? You’re an Israeli… 1. How was Israel so successful in this war?