IX Aerosol

Information about IX Aerosol

Published on January 3, 2008

Author: Janelle

Source: authorstream.com

Content

VIII. Aerosols Size distribution Formation and Processing Composition Aerosol phase chemistry:  VIII. Aerosols Size distribution Formation and Processing Composition Aerosol phase chemistry Slide2:  Importance of aerosols human health air quality, airborne pathogen transport climate change direct/indirect effects aerosol optical properties, aerosol/cloud interactions geochemical cycles metals, nutrients, organics acidification (sulfur, nitrogen) Terminology:  Terminology Aerosol – a dispersion of solid and liquid particles suspended in gas (air). note: “aerosol” is defined as the dispersion of both particles and gas, but in common practice it is used to refer to the particles only! Primary aerosol – atmospheric particles that are emitted or injected directly into the atmosphere. Secondary aerosol – atmospheric particles that are created by in situ aggregation or nucleation from gas phase molecules (gas to particle conversion). Either type may be natural or anthropogenic or both How much aerosol is there? typically ~10’s of ug/m3 (air density ~1kg/m3) Global Particle Production (Table 2.19 from Seinfeld and Pandis):  Global Particle Production (Table 2.19 from Seinfeld and Pandis) Aerosol Size Distributions:  Aerosol Size Distributions Number distribution  nn(Dp)=dN/dDp Surface area distribution  ns(Dp)= dS/dDp S=Dp2 Volume distribution  nv(Dp)=dV/dDp V=(/6)*Dp3 Log-normal distributions:  Log-normal distributions Aitken mode Accumulation mode Coarse mode Number distribution  nn(log Dp)=dN/d log Dp Surface area distribution  ns(log Dp)= dS/d log Dp Volume distribution  nv(log Dp)=dV/d log Dp The Aerosol Modes:  Aitken mode – 0.01-0.1 m Accumulation mode – 0.1-1 m Coarse mode - >1 m and sometimes, the elusive nucleation mode <0.01 um The Aerosol Modes A process oriented view of aerosol size distribution:  A process oriented view of aerosol size distribution Slide9:  hygroscopic aerosols grow/shrink with RH (with hysteresis!) aerosol size strongly affects light scattering cross-section Humidity and aerosol size... Slide10:  Removal mechanisms... gravitational settling 10 m particle  1000 cm hr-1 1 m particle  10 cm hr-1 Slide11:  fine particles You can estimate the distance a particle will diffuse in a given time from the equation: where D is the diffusion coefficient Diffusion/Coagulation Slide12:  Why is there an “accumulation” mode? So lifetimes are ….:  So lifetimes are …. Aitken nuclei – hours to days (diffusion/coagulation) Accumulation mode – weeks Coarse mode – hours to days (deposition) Ultrafine – minutes to hours Secondary organic aerosol formation:  Secondary organic aerosol formation VOC oxidized to less-volatile OC Partitioning to aerosol phase depends on vapor pressure High equilibrium vapor pressure  high tendency to stay in gas phase Low equilibrium vapor pressure  partitions to aerosol phase – non-volatiles Large organics (C> 6) tend form aerosols while organics C<6 do not. Oligomerization on/in acid aerosol Aqueous Aerosol:  Aqueous Aerosol Thermodynamic partitioning (AgAaq) liquid water content (L=g of H2O/m3 of air) L=0.1-0.3 in clouds L=0.02-0.5 in fogs Henry’s law constant (H) HA=[A] (M)/A (atm) A few Henry’s law constants…:  HO2=1.3x10-3 M/atm HO3=1.1x10-2 M/atm HNH3=62 M/atm HH2O2=7x104 M/atm HH2CO=2.5 M/atm Exercise: Calculate the concentration of ozone in pure water in equilibrium with 10 ppbv ozone, assume ideal gas. A few Henry’s law constants… Formaldehyde…:  Formaldehyde… Acids…:  Acids… Slide19:  Because Keq2/H+>>1 nearly all nitric acid will exist as nitrate. Slide20:  The chemical perspective ... a chemical size distribution 1. chemical size distributions resemble mass, not number 2. sulfate and organics dominate the accumulation mode, but there’s a surprising amount of seasalt 3. there are a lot of unidentified organics 4. the coarse mode has the expected mechanically generated aerosols, but also nitrate and sometimes sulfate Mass (C. Leck) Slide21:  Dust (mineral aerosols) diameter size: 2-300 µm main material: sand, silt, clay includes essential trace metals such as Fe consists of insoluble and soluble fractions Mineral Dust Slide22:  “brown carbon”: sugars alcohols aromatics di/tri acids ketoacids hydroxyacids soot – “elemental carbon” formed in flames little spectral dependence carbon-only Organic aerosols - burning Slide23:  Seasalt aerosols... seasalt production via bubble bursting... film drops (many, small, organics) jet drops (fewer, larger) wind bubbles spray whitecap coverage W α U3+ The sulfur story (in brief) ... :  The sulfur story (in brief) ... emissions: fossil fuel SO2, volcanic SO2, oceanic DMS DMS oxidation ... gas phase ... complex! (mod. from Yin et al., 1990) SO2 oxidation in the gas phase is simple...:  SO2 oxidation in the gas phase is simple... but most SO2 oxidation occurs in the aqueous phase... Slide26:  heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 in-cloud oxidation weakly buffered, pH ~4 oxidation by H2O2 seasalt aerosols strongly buffered by carbonate system rapid oxidation by O3 slower oxidation by H2O2 (also OH, halogen radicals...) growth of existing particles, inhibits nucleation of new particles (Chameides and Stelson, 1992)

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