Jayant

Information about Jayant

Published on November 23, 2007

Author: Goldie

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  F7 and FORCLIMIT PROJECTS: The Tropical Forestry and Global Climate Change Research Network Climate Change Mitigation: Role of Forests and Forestry Projects Jayant Sathaye Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) University of California, Berkeley, CA July 2003 What is the role of sinks in the global carbon cycle? :  What is the role of sinks in the global carbon cycle? The Global Carbon Cycle Units Gt C and Gt C y-1:  Atmosphere Fossil Deposits 6.3 62.3 92.3 60 90 3.3 Plants Soil Oceans 750 500 2000 39,000 About 16,000 1.6 The Global Carbon Cycle Units Gt C and Gt C y-1 …are leading to a build up of CO2 in the atmosphere. Fossil emissions ... …and land clearing ... But, the oceans and land vegetation are taking up 4.6 Gt C between them. At equilibrium this would be zero. The KP seeks to reduce net emissions by about 0.3 Gt C below 1990 levels Carbon emissions and uptakes since 1800 (Gt C):  Carbon emissions and uptakes since 1800 (Gt C) Slide5:  Above ground carbon Below ground carbon What is the forestry mitigation potential in developing countries? :  What is the forestry mitigation potential in developing countries? Mitigation Analysis:  Mitigation Analysis Goal: Estimate the carbon mitigation potential and costs of forestry options Scale: National or regional level analysis Project-specific analysis Confined to a specific geographic location, time period and institutional framework so as to allow changes in GHG emissions attributable to the project to be monitored and verified F7 Project Description:  F7 Project Description National and regional level mitigation analysis Studies conducted by country-specific modeling teams LBNL provides technical support, training and outreach All analyses use the same model COMAP accounting approach Data: National statistics on land use patterns, carbon benefits and costs of mitigation options, timber and non-timber prices, etc. F7 and FORCLIMIT Participating Research Groups (F7 since 1990):  F7 and FORCLIMIT Participating Research Groups (F7 since 1990) ASIA: CHINA -- Xu, Deying (IPCC Lead Author, LULUCF Report), Forest Ecology and Environment Institute, Beijing INDIA -- Dr. N.H. Ravindranath (IPCC Coordinator, LULUCF Report, CLA for Tech Transfer, and LA for WGIII Report, Consultant to UNFCCC), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore INDONESIA -- Prof. Rizaldi Boer (UNFCCC Consultant), Bogor Agriculture University, Bogor (co-funding with EAP) MALAYSIA -- Dr. Roslan Ismail (ITTO Board, IPCC LA), SustechAsia.com Sdn Bhd., and Prof. Azman Abidin, UPM, Malaysia (via EAP funding) PHILIPPINES -- Prof. Rodel Lasco (IPCC Lead Author, LULUCF Report), University of the Philippines, Los Banos (via EAP funding) AFRICA: TANZANIA -- (Yonika Ngaga, CEEST, Dar es Salam, and Dr.Willy Makundi, LBNL, LULUCF and WGIII Lead Author) LATIN AMERICA: MEXICO -- Prof. Omar Masera, IPCC CLA LULUCF and LA Tech Transfer and WG III reports, National University of Mexico BRAZIL -- Dr. Philip Fearnside, IPCC, CLA LULUCF and LA WGII, National Institute for Research in the Amazon (INPA), Manaus Mitigation Analysis Using a bottom-up approach:  Mitigation Analysis Using a bottom-up approach Select area (country or region) and option to analyze Develop basecase and mitigation land-use scenarios by option Estimate carbon stock changes by option in each carbon pool Live and dead biomass, soil, and products Estimate costs and benefits of each option Costs: Investment, recurring, opportunity, and monitoring Revenues: Timber, fuel wood, honey, etc. sources Compare cost and carbon estimates Use an equilibrium carbon approach, and/or track annual changes in carbon and costs/benefits Estimate macroeconomic impacts Slide11:  Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) Slide12:  Negative cost potential about half the total COMAP: Forestry Mitigation Potential (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Philippines and Tanzania) 35 36 10 9 7 8 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 6 5 4 3 2 1 ($1,000) ($800) ($600) ($400) ($200) $0 $200 $400 $600 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Cumulative Carbon Mitigation Potential (Mt C), 2000-2030 - Hypothetical Carbon Price Source: 1.      Sathaye J. Makundi W., Andrasko K. Boer R., Ravindranath N.H., Sudha P., Rao S., Lasco R., Pulhin F., Masera O., Ceron A., Ordonez J., Deying X., Zhang X., and Zuomin S. 2001. Carbon mitigation potential and costs of forestry options in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines, and Tanzania. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Vol. 6. Nos. 3-4, pp. 185-211. Slide13:  GCOMAP Results: Forestation – Long Rotation: $10 / t C + 5 % / year carbon price scenario 1990-2000 FAO Base Case Planting Rates (thousand ha/yr): C America – 60 S America -- 80 Africa – 115 India – 350 China – 615 Rest of Asia – 1100 Slide14:  GCOMAP Results: Avoided Deforestation: $10 / t C constant carbon price scenario Slide15:  GCOMAP Results: Avoided Deforestation: $100 / t C constant carbon price scenario Carbon price that halts deforestation: Africa $ 38 / t C C America $ 85 / t C Rest of Asia $105 / t C S America $ 85 / t C Note: Prices are sensitive to the proportion of deforestation that yields timber revenue 1. Selection and Characterization of Options :  1. Selection and Characterization of Options Mitigation Options Regeneration – Natural and Enhanced Short and Long-rotation Plantations Agroforestry Forest Protection Forest management Bioenergy Avoided deforestation Characteristics Mean annual increment, soil carbon, vegetation carbon, rotation period Establishment and silvicultural costs, timber and non-timber benefits 2. Land-use Scenarios:  2. Land-use Scenarios Brazil -- Scenarios based on potential identified in literature China -- Two scenarios based on government plans Forestation of 80% and 60% of suitable land area in 30 years in three regions -- South West, South East, and North East. India -- Sustainable and commercial forestry scenarios analyzed Indonesia -- Government plans scenario, and a mitigation scenario were analyzed. The latter meets all wood demand by 2010. Philippines -- Forestation rates of 100% and 50% of government plans in two scenarios. Mexico -- Baseline (likely trends) and mitigation scenario analyzed Mitigation consists of reduced deforestation rates, better forest management, and plantations meet commercial wood demand Tanzania - The Tropical Forest Action Plan (TFAP) scenario, assuming that 3.5 Mha and 1.7 Mha land area is converted are analyzed. 3. Carbon Accounting:  3. Carbon Accounting Four carbon pools are accounted for Above- and below-ground biomass, detritus, soils and products Carbon accounting is on an equilibrium value basis Annual balance is reported for vegetation carbon All accounting is with respect to a reference case or baseline carbon 3.1 Carbon Accounting:  3.1 Carbon Accounting Time Carbon Stock T 0.5 T Natural regeneration Plantation operated in rotation Forest Protection: Baseline Scenario Forest Protection: Mitigation Scenario 4. Benefit / Cost Accounting:  4. Benefit / Cost Accounting Costs include Establishment or first costs Recurring costs -- maintenance and monitoring Opportunity cost of land Benefits include Revenue from sale of timber and non-timber products -- fruits, honey, etc. Accounting is with respect to a reference case or baseline cost and benefits 4.1 -- Regeneration Project: Accounting of Carbon and Costs:  4.1 -- Regeneration Project: Accounting of Carbon and Costs Time Carbon Stock G Time Annual Cost R R T T I V U O O 4.2 -- Forest Conservation Project: Accounting of Carbon and Costs:  4.2 -- Forest Conservation Project: Accounting of Carbon and Costs Time Carbon Stock Baseline Scenario Mitigation Scenario Mitigation Scenario Baseline Scenario Annual Cost T A B C D O M O E F T Tp Tp Y X L Z V 4.3 -- Plantation Project Harvested in Rotation: Accounting of Carbon and Costs :  4.3 -- Plantation Project Harvested in Rotation: Accounting of Carbon and Costs Time Carbon Stock G 0.5 G Time Annual Cost R R T K T M N A B O O 6. Conceptual Figure: Impact of barriers on costs and carbon mitigation potential :  6. Conceptual Figure: Impact of barriers on costs and carbon mitigation potential Carbon sequestered or emissions avoided (t C) Cost of carbon ($/t C) F7 Estimate – Socioeconomic Potential Market or Achievable Potential Economic Potential Barriers: Examples Carbon leakage Class structure Gender Issues Attitudes and habits Market Failures: Examples Ill-defined property rights Lack of information Absence of markets Poor capital markets ?? ?? Technical Potential Slide27:  Carbon Benefits: Mitigation Options in F7 Studies   Slide28:  Potential Supply Ongoing Work at Berkeley Lab:  Ongoing Work at Berkeley Lab Estimating mitigation potential of projects taking barriers into consideration Land tenure, rural cultures, risk-averse behavior, lack of product markets, etc. Project-specific analysis of forestry mitigation options Establishing approaches to resolve issues of baselines, permanence, and leakage FORCLIMIT Project Evaluation of case studies to better understand key LULUCF issues about leakage and baselines GCOMAP Model development Key Concerns about Climate Change Projects:  Key Concerns about Climate Change Projects Tests for additionality and credibility of baselines Estimating and controlling GHG leakage Monitoring and verification of GHG emissions and carbon stock Permanence: Duration of carbon stocks of a LULUCF project Sustainability concerns about LULUCF projects The above issues, except permanence, are of concern to all climate change projects, although their impact varies by type of project Leakage :  Leakage Reduced access to land, food, fuel and timber resources without offering alternatives may result in carbon leakage as people find needed supplies elsewhere A few pilot projects have been designed to reduce leakage Multi-component projects: (CARE/Guatemala) increases fuelwood availability and agricultural productivity by encouraging agroforestry Significant leakage may require assessments outside the project boundary Difficult if the assessment is across national boundaries 1.1 Forestry Mitigation Options In Study Countries: Key Assumptions:  1.1 Forestry Mitigation Options In Study Countries: Key Assumptions * Excludes opportunity costs of land, which vary substantially across countries. These are accounted for in the estimates for each study country. Slide33:  2. Historical land-use characteristics   Slide34:  Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) Slide35:  2.1 Land-use categories Slide36:  3.2 Vegetation Carbon Stock in Study Countries 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 2000 '12 '30 2000 '12 '30 2000 '12 '30 2000 '12 '30 2000 '12 '30 2000 '12 '30 Mexico Indonesia China India Philippines Tanzania Mt C Mitigation Scenario Baseline Scenario 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 2000 '12 '30 Philippines Mitigation Baseline 4.4 Evaluation of Project Costs:  4.4 Evaluation of Project Costs Time Total Costs B: Discounted present value of cost series A C: Annualized cost of a LULUCF project Converging series A: Cost of a LULUCF project 4.5 Discounting Carbon Revenue:  4.5 Discounting Carbon Revenue Slide39:  5. Forestry Mitigation Potential, Indonesia Forest Protection Bioenergy Reforestation - Short - Rotation Reduced Impact Logging Reforestation - Long - Rotation Enhanced Natural Regeneration Long - Rotation Plantation Short - Rotation Plantation - 150 - 100 - 50 0 50 100 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Cumulative Carbon Mitigation Potential (Mt C), 2000-2030 Cost ($/t C) DR = 10% Slide40:  Negative cost potential about half the total COMAP- Forestry Mitigation Potential (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Philippines and Tanzania) 35 36 10 9 7 8 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 6 5 4 3 2 1 ($1,000) ($800) ($600) ($400) ($200) $0 $200 $400 $600 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Cumulative Carbon Mitigation Potential (Mt C), 2000 - 2030 Slide41:  Negative cost potential about half the total 5.3 Forestry Mitigation Potential (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Philippines and Tanzania) 35 36 10 9 7 8 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 6 5 4 3 2 1 ($1,000) ($800) ($600) ($400) ($200) $0 $200 $400 $600 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 Cumulative Carbon Mitigation Potential (Mt C), 2000 - 2030 Hypothetical Carbon Price

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