jbartram

Information about jbartram

Published on April 22, 2008

Author: Regina1

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Social Issues in Holland:  Social Issues in Holland Part II: Amsterdam Human Capital Jeanne Bartram March 3, 2006 2.1: Amsterdam as the “Compleat Citie”:  2.1: Amsterdam as the “Compleat Citie” “Mud model” 1380 expansion 1425 and 1450 canals 16th century expansions 17th century large-scale expansion Early urban and modern expansion General Expansion plan 20th century expansion City of Amsterdam population growth:  City of Amsterdam population growth 17th century expansion:  17th century expansion Grachtengordel “half-moon” layout Early urban planners Absence of grand squares and edifices www.bmz.amsterdam.nl The ideal city?:  The ideal city? Olsen: canal belt as an anachronism “The last great medieval city” But a medieval mentality? Bakker: master plan for ideal city of canals Beauty and order not by chance Symmetry, Vitruvian radial city, no medieval chaos Accessibility and aesthetic aspects important Map of Amsterdam:  Map of Amsterdam Early Urban Expansion:  Early Urban Expansion Massive 19th century population growth Changes in transport: Railroads Van Niftrik’s plan: little open public space 17th century inner city intact Van Niftrik: http://www.bronnenuitamsterdam.nl/weergave.asp?ID=256 Modern expansion:  Modern expansion Lynch: city as machine, organic, and ecosystem in 20th century Amsterdam 1896: City bought, leased land 1902 Housing Act: easier to buy land Howard’s “garden city” principle Enlargement plans required for all Dutch cities with more than 10,000 residents Modern expansion:  Modern expansion Transport = freedom beyond old city Berlage’s enlargement plan: The cosmic city: geometrical relationships Monumentalism, charm Mirror image of canal system Boomkens: “adolescent modernism which wanted to break radically with the city of its fathers” Berlage’s Amsterdam-Zuid:  Berlage’s Amsterdam-Zuid Little hope left for mixed population Became an elite district http://www.nai.nl/pagjpgs/collnwsjpgs/2004/0412_maq_adam01.jpg General Expansion plan:  General Expansion plan City of Amsterdam size quadrupled in 1921 Holidays and free-time led to emphasis on recreation, parks AUP remained guiding force of city growth despite WWII “City of Future” had high unemployment, crime rates by 1970s 1980s city “based upon ideas dating from the 1920s” (Richter Roegholt) Amsterdam in late 20th century:  Amsterdam in late 20th century Raising artificial islands beyond the IJ New streets and canals in Ijburg development http://www.cie.nl/Media/07projects/ijburg.JPG 2.2: Between Civic Pride and Mass Society:  2.2: Between Civic Pride and Mass Society 19th century losses in Amsterdam Vision of Paris Improving Amsterdam Lost glory in Amsterdam during 19th century:  Lost glory in Amsterdam during 19th century Laissez-faire politics, civic glory Amsterdammers could not emulate Paris Napoleonic years, Amsterdam a municipality Some economic recovery due to Suez Canal But no shortage of slums Traffic congestion problems Slow to build infrastructure, costs astronomical Followed English model that public pays for services itself How Paris created its glory:  How Paris created its glory Infrastructure created Slums removed from center Monuments of prestige and honor Traffic improvement Sarphati’s plan for Amsterdam:  Sarphati’s plan for Amsterdam Ambitious plan for southern quarter Built first modern hotel in Amsterdam Two exclusive upper-class areas planned along Amstel banks Competing plans and expense led to abandonment of plan Pijp building replaced prestigious design, demonized area Other plans:  Other plans City architect Niftrik proposed rigid residential segregation, but would be hard to enforce 1877 J. Kalff’s plan accepted Main streets, circular roads Little embellishment Minimum of open spaces Creation of the Vondelpark:  Creation of the Vondelpark “Park committee” created in 1864 1877 opening, sale of building plots profitable Civic initiatives started National gallery: Rijksmuseum Concert Hall: Concertgebouw Municipal Museum: Stedelijk Museum, modern art gallery built for works of Van Gogh and Brietner City Library Botanical Gardens University of Amsterdam laboratories improved Vondelpark:  Vondelpark http://jkearon.tripod.com/images/ams_2003/vondelpark.jpg National Gallery: Rijksmuseum:  National Gallery: Rijksmuseum http://www.photo.net/philg/digiphotos/200108-nikon775-london-holland/rijksmuseum.half.jpg Concert Hall:  Concert Hall http://gardenhomearchitects.com/22-Amsterdam_VT-026.htm Municipal Museum:  Municipal Museum Botanical Gardens:  Botanical Gardens http://clarsen.net/story.php.id.187.page.10.s.3.php Creation of the Welfare-State:  Creation of the Welfare-State Old vision that housing a private affair was attacked 1890s public utilities municipalized 1901 Housing Act led to Welfare State Collectivist approach started, Berlage’s design could be imposed in 1917 New quarter was designed according to aesthetic criteria of the Amsterdam School Apartments instead of houses Commercial space on ground level General Extension Plan:  General Extension Plan Result of “form follows function” attitudes Created upper-deck-access flats with daylight and fresh air Aesthetics avoided This was obsolete design by 1970s when the Netherlands became a more market-oriented economy Modernism for a “welfare capital”:  Modernism for a “welfare capital” Berlage was last planner to attempt monumentality in Amsterdam Aesthetics avoided Amsterdam followed by Stockholm, London French socialist and right-wing presidents continued adorning Paris 2.4: Economic Restructuring of the Historic City Center:  2.4: Economic Restructuring of the Historic City Center Two rounds of urban restructuring since WWII Rebuilding after war 1960s producer economy replaced http://www.euronet.nl/users/edusoft/images/jbraakgr.jpg 1945 - 1974: First Round of Urban Restructuring:  1945 - 1974: First Round of Urban Restructuring Restructuring of existing building stock and built environment After the war, property prices high, especially along main arteries and canals Highly socially regulated process formalized in General Extension Plan Housing shortage after the war led to rent control Amsterdam Social Democrats could realize social housing policy on leasehold land General Extension Plan:  General Extension Plan Industry to leave historic city center Realized after WWII Planned deconcentration of population Territorial growth of Amsterdam More space for industrial sites, port areas, infrastructure Low density housing to compete with suburbs 1960s economic growth issues:  1960s economic growth issues Tight labor market fueled housing demand and mass motorization Scarcity of large building sites Pressure on historic city center to become “American-style” district City plan to thin out inner-city neighborhoods led to mass protests and violent riots by baby-boomers Urban social activists won struggle for historic center, led to urban renewal plan without displacement Post-1974: Second Round of Urban Restructuring:  Post-1974: Second Round of Urban Restructuring Occurred in fixed built environment, led to preservation policies, freezing Limits on land-use mix: historic buildings too small for offices and shops Accessibility only by bike or foot: small-scale shopping best in historic area Higher class structures can build “cultural capital” Urban renewal of social housing 90% of all new construction between 1945 - 1985 was public housing Rent control kept prices low and mixed incomes in city center Gentrification occurred as lofts and offices converted to housing Baby-boomers and the Second Round:  Baby-boomers and the Second Round Battle against authoritarianism interwoven with struggle for more human, liveable city Social movements struggling for post-materialist culture and more collective consumption The Netherlands made second fastest shift to post-materialist culture after Sweden 1960s depillarization declined Amsterdam was higher education center Dutch state structure, dependence of cities on grants Slide33:  http://www.hiptravelguide.com/amsterdam/drugs.jpg http://www.flyingpig.nl/pig-news/fotos/coffeeshop.jpg 1980s Crisis:  1980s Crisis Low class “drug” tourists hurt city atmosphere Declining population Large-scale unemployment Rapidly increasing numbers on welfare Crime increases due to drug dealing Graffiti, dirty streets High social-security contributions Slide35:  http://www.cultkanaal.nl/Muziek/hip-hop-geschiedenis.html Recovery of Amsterdam City Center:  Recovery of Amsterdam City Center More expensive, private-rental and owner-occupied housing 1992 Olympic Games, Public Relations Festivals and events in center, a “place for fun” Large-scale gentrification “Drugs, sex, and fun are offered next to Rembrandt, Golden Age architecture, and cultural events.” Slide37:  http://davem.ncsa.uiuc.edu/pictures/netherlands_2000/amsterdam-house_boat.jpg http://static.hotwire.com/static/images/travel-information/spotlight/spotlight-amsterdam-pic.jpg http://www.worldlymag.com/worldly/2004.04/nether3.gif

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