jmajor022206

Information about jmajor022206

Published on February 11, 2008

Author: Sigfrid

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Improving soils with biochar: General considerations and current research efforts by Julie Major:  Improving soils with biochar: General considerations and current research efforts by Julie Major Amazonian Dark Earth:  Amazonian Dark Earth Highly fertile compared to parent material Up to 70% of C is black C ADE Adjacent soil Photos by J. Major Outline:  Outline What is biochar? Why biochar in agriculture? How does biochar improve yields? Biochar stability Biochar and land management Biochar in developing countries: competing uses Ongoing research What is biochar?:  What is biochar? Produced from biomass above 300 ºC Contains ~ 80% C as black C Highly aromatic, porous Also contains minerals as ashes Low bulk density Controlled / intentional biochar-making Average C recovery as biochar: 50% (3% for slash-and-burn) (Glaser et al 2002) Photo by M. Yamato Slide5:  Slash-and-burn Biochar making CO2 NOx www.ayiti.com www.hammerinhand.com www.biology.duke.edu www.ambergriscaye.com Why biochar in agriculture?:  Why biochar in agriculture? Stability Best management without bio-char Review of 24 experiments and 10 different crops Lehmann and Rondon, 2006, Bio-char Soil Management on Highly Weathered Soils in the Humid Tropics . Francis and Taylor, FL, pp. 517-530 How does biochar improve yields?:  How does biochar improve yields? Direct nutrient ADDITION Data for an Oxisol, Lehmann et al. (2002) Nutrient RETENTION:  Nutrient RETENTION CEC ↑ up to 50% pH ↑ up to 1.2 units NO3- NH4+ Loss to groundwater? (reviewed by Glaser et al. 2002) Less oxidated More oxidated Nutrient RETENTION:  Nutrient RETENTION Decreased nutrient leaching biochar Lehmann et al. 2003, Plant and Soil 249: 343-357 NH4+ Nutrient RETENTION:  Nutrient RETENTION Soils: Lehmann et al., 2005, Environmental Science and Technology 39: 6672-6680 Bio-char: Lehmann, unpublished 3- 3- How does biochar improve yields?:  How does biochar improve yields? Decreased nutrient LEACHING: Water dynamics 20 t ha-1 biochar Control plot “WETTER” J. Major, unpubl. data Biochar last longer in soil:  Biochar last longer in soil Lehmann et al., 2006, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, in press Biochar last longer in soil:  Bio-char is the oldest carbon in soils and sediments Ages up to: 2,400 years (Glaser et al., 2001, Naturwissenschaften 88: 37-41) 9,100 years (Pessenda et al., 2001, Radiocarbon 43: 595-601) {20% older than oldest humus} 13,900 years older than non-BC (Masiello and Druffel, 1998, Science 280: 1911-1913) {ocean sediments} Biochar last longer in soil Carbon sequestration in soil:  Carbon sequestration in soil Lehmann et al., 2006, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, in press Coupled biochar and energy production:  Coupled biochar and energy production Plant diagram Slide16:  Multiple environmental benefits Substitution of a portion of fertilizers Sustainable land use Reduction of off-site pollution Bio-char Climate change mitigation Bio-char Bio-char J. Lehmann General considerations:  General considerations Biochar is a valuable resource in many developing countries Haïti story 3.8% of land area was forested in 2005 (FAO) Biochar and fuel wood provide at least 75% of Haïti’s total energy requirements (and virtually all household energy needs) (Catanese and Perlack, 1993) Slide18:  www.sunoven.com www.piphaiti.org Slide19:  Source: CIA World Factbook online and Mongabay.com 2005 data Slide20:  Hurricane Jeanne (2004) www.ens-newswire.com www.usaid.gov How not to repeat what happens in Haïti:  How not to repeat what happens in Haïti Biochar added to soil is highly stable Making biochar can actually yield energy, e.g. for cooking Biomass inputs should be planned for and well managed Plantation wood? Crop residue? Slash-and-char? Slide22:  http://www.sampowers.net/pictures/antigua/bg_DSC00077.JPG www.nowaste.act.gov.au http://www.ieml.net/pages/inter_projects.asp Current research:  Biqing Liang: Organic C and nutrient cycling under Amazonian Dark Earth and adjacent soils Current research Current research:  Current research Chih-Hsin Cheng: CEC and surface charge of biochar from kilns in a climosequence Old charcoal kiln in Pennsylvania Current research:  Current research Binh Thanh Nguyen: Long-term dynamics of black C properties under cultivation Current research:  Current research Joseph Kimetu: Soil organic C and crop yield with a range of amendments of variable degradability Current research:  Current research Dawit Solomon, Ph.D. (Johannes Lehmann, Janice Thies, Biquing Liang, James Kinyangi, Julie Grossman, Thorsten Schäfer, Jan Skjemstad) Macromolecular fingerprinting of organic C in Amazonian Dark Earth using High energy photo oxidation and 13C CP-MAS NMR, C (1s) NEXAFS and Sr-FTIR spectroscopy Current research:  Current research Julie Major: Field hydrology, nutrient leaching and C biogeochemistry of biochar-amended soil Current research:  Current research Janice Thies’ group: Brendan O’Neill: Extracting DNA from ADE and culturing microorganisms isolated from ADE Current research:  Current research Julie Grossman, Ph.D.: Fingerprinting DNA extracted from ADE and adjacent soils Thank you!:  Thank you! Thank you! www.theoldschoolhouse.com

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