Jon De Jong - Evaluating Strategic Pellet Feeding Regimens On Finishing Pig Performance, Stomach Morphology, And Carcass Characteristics

Information about Jon De Jong - Evaluating Strategic Pellet Feeding Regimens On Finishing...

Published on February 11, 2016

Author: trufflemedia

Source: slideshare.net

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1. J.A. De Jong*1, J.M. DeRouchey1, M.D. Tokach1, S.S. Dritz1, R.D. Goodband1, and M. Allerson2 1 Kansas State University, Manhattan, 2 Holden Farms Inc., Northfield, MN This project was supported by Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant no. 2011-68004-30336 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture

2. Background • Pelleting finishing pig diets has consistently shown improvements in both ADG and F/G (Skoch et al., 1983 and Paulk et al., 2011). • Some commercial feed mills are limited in the amount of pelleted feed that they can produce. • In finishing pigs, Paulk et al. (2011) found that pigs fed pellets for the second half of the finishing period had improved ADG compared to those fed pellets for the first half of the finishing period.

3. Background • Pellets and fine mash diets can cause ulcers (Wondra et al., 1995 and Nielson et al., 2000). • Feeding coarse mash diets may heal ulceration in finishing pigs (Ayles et al., 1996)

4. Objective • To determine the effects of strategic pellet feeding regimens on finishing pig growth performance, stomach morphology, and carcass characteristics.

5. Materials and Methods • A total of 2,100 pigs (PIC 327 × 1050, initially 31.5 kg BW) were used in an 118-d study. • Pigs were randomly assigned to pens upon entry into the finisher, pens were then randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments balanced within gender. • There were 25 pigs per pen and 14 pens per treatment (7 gilt and 7 barrow pens).

6. Materials and Methods • The same corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 15% DDGS was used for all treatments. • Treatments were: 1) Continuous meal feed 2) Continuous pelleted feed 3) Meal from d 0 to 70 and pellets from d 70 to 118 4) Pellets from d 0 to 70 and meal from d 70 to 118 5) Pellets and meal rotated every 2 wk starting with meal 6) Pellets and meal rotated every 2 wk starting with pellets • Diets were fed in 5 phases. Pigs and feeders were weighed approximately every 2 weeks to determine ADG, ADFI, and F/G.

7. Materials and Methods • On d 110, 4 pigs from each pen were harvested and a ulcer and keratinization score were assigned to each stomach. • All remaining pigs were harvested at a commercial abattoir on d 112 for barrow and d 118 for gilt pens. • Yield, HCW, BF, loin area, IV value, and percentage lean were determined. • Data were analyzed as a complete randomized design (CRD) using PROC-Mixed in SAS.

8. Diet - Physical Analysis Pelleted diets Meal diets Phase PDI, % % fines Angle of repose, ˚ Particle size, µ Phase 1 84.5 26.7 39.4 683 Phase 2 85.8 34.6 45.2 692 Phase 3 86.9 20.3 41.6 705 Phase 4 90.2 33.1 42.6 714 Phase 5 94.5 10.8 50.6 641

9. Effects of pelleting regimen on ADG 0.91 0.92 0.91 0.91 0.91 0.92 0.87 0.89 0.91 0.93 0.95 Meal Pellet Meal/ Pellet/ Rotated Rotated ADG,kg abc P > 0.10 SEM = 0.01 Pellet Meal

10. Effects of pelleting regimen on ADFI 2.36 2.26 2.30 2.28 2.30 2.29 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 Meal Pellet Meal/ Pellet/ Rotated Rotated a ADFI,kg abc P < 0.05 x,y,z P < 0.10 SEM = 0.024 c,y b,c,x b,c b b,c Pellet Meal

11. Effects of pelleting regimen on F/G 2.59 2.46 2.51 2.50 2.51 2.49 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 Meal Pellet Meal/ Pellet/ Rotated Rotated c G:F abc P < 0.05 SEM = 0.01 a b b b b Pellet Meal

12. Gastric ulcers • Ulcers result when the squamous epithelium of the esophageal region of the stomach is repeatedly exposed to acidic stomach contents. • Pelleted or finely ground feeds causes increases in the fluidity of the stomach contents. • When exposed over time to stomach acid, the squamous epithelium begins to first keratinize and subsequently ulcerate. Friendship et al., (2014)

13. Normal Stomach Esophageal Region (no keratinization or ulceration) Esophageal opening

14. Gastric ulcer (100% keratinization) Esophageal opening

15. Gastric ulcer (100% Ulceration) Esophageal opening

16. Effects of pelleting regimen on stomach morphology (combined ulceration & keratinization) 5.3 6.7 6.7 4.6 6.2 5.3 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Meal Pellet Meal/ Pellet/ Rotated Rotated Score abc P < 0.05 x,y,z P < 0.10 SEM = 0.613 Pellet Meal a, x a, x ab ab, y ab, y b

17. Effects of pelleting regimen on pig removals per pen 0.5 1.9 1.1 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Meal Pellet Meal/ Pellet/ Rotated Rotated b Removals/pen ab P < 0.05 SEM = 0.265 a b b b b Pellet Meal

18. Conclusions • Overall, there were no differences in ADG (P > 0.10) between any of the treatments. • Pigs fed meal feed throughout the trial had the greatest (P < 0.05) ADFI, while pigs fed pellets throughout had the lowest with all others intermediate. • Pigs fed pelleted feed throughout had the greatest F/G (P < 0.05), while pigs fed meal throughout had the worst with all other regimens being intermediate. • There were no differences in any carcass traits measured.

19. Conclusions • Feeding pelleted diets throughout increased (P < 0.05) the number of pigs removed per pen. – This was most likely a result of increased incidence of ulcers in pigs fed pelleted diets. • However, alternating pellets and meal provided an intermediate feed efficiency response without increasing removals.

20. Thank you! K-STATE RESEARCH and EXTENSION This project was supported by Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grant no. 2011-68004-30336 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture

21. Effects of pelleting regimen on IOFC 74.73 68.46 72.79 73.65 75.31 76.55 65.00 68.00 71.00 74.00 77.00 80.00 83.00 Meal Pellet Meal/ Pellet/ Rotated Rotated IOFC,$ P > 0.10 SEM = 2.45 Pellet Meal

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