JSOBasic

Information about JSOBasic

Published on August 6, 2007

Author: Flemel

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Juvenile’s and Sex Offending:  Juvenile’s and Sex Offending Scott Smith MA LCPC P F Dover Counseling Continuum of Sexual Abuse:  Continuum of Sexual Abuse Elements of Sexual Abuse :  Elements of Sexual Abuse Betrayal of trust Harms/Injures Violation of another’s rights Threatens safety/well being of another Coercive Threatens self-esteem Non-consenting Takes advantage of another Abuse of power Note: Not a legal definition Two Categories of Sexual Abuse:  Two Categories of Sexual Abuse Touch Non-touch Touch Sexual Abuse/Sexual Assault:  Touch Sexual Abuse/Sexual Assault Any sexual touch that does not involve consent or mutual agreement These forms of abuse may involve penetration/fondling/touching The physical contact can take place with any body part (e.g., penis, tongue, fingers, feet, etc.) and does not always involve penetration (e.g., grabbing a woman’s breast) Foreign objects may also be used to commit contact sex offenses (e.g., raping a woman by inserting a gun in her vagina) Touch Sexual Abuse/Sexual Assault Examples:  Touch Sexual Abuse/Sexual Assault Examples Frottage Rape (Date/Marital/Cohabiting) Pinching, patting, grabbing, rubbing some without consent (a.k.a. physical sexual harassment) Bestiality Touch Sexual Abuse/Sexual Assault Examples Cont.:  Touch Sexual Abuse/Sexual Assault Examples Cont. Incest Pedophilic acts (sexual touching of a child) Necrophilia Sexual Murder Non-Touch Sexual Abuse:  Non-Touch Sexual Abuse Non-touch sexual abuse involves unwanted comments, gestures, or any behaviors of a sexual nature that do not involve direct tactile stimulation Can cause as much trauma as a 'Touch Sexual Offense' to the victim(s) Types of Non-Touch Sexual Abuse:  Types of Non-Touch Sexual Abuse Exposing children to sexually explicit material Having sexual relations in front of children Using sexually abusive language Stalking Non-consenting sexual photography Types of Non-Touch Sexual Abuse Cont.:  Types of Non-Touch Sexual Abuse Cont. Sexual comments/talk or gestures Exposing (Exhibitionism) Peeping (Voyeurism) Obscene phone calling/non-consenting cyber- sex Sexual harassment Grooming :  Grooming What is Grooming?:  What is Grooming? Grooming Defined Any willful action made by the offender to prepare the victim and/or the victim’s support network that allows for easier sex offending. Common Grooming Techniques Used by Sex Offenders:  Common Grooming Techniques Used by Sex Offenders Giving the victim bribes, gifts, special privileges, drugs/alcohol Compliments Being affectionate with the victim Seeking victims that are needy emotionally Convince the victim that sex is a 'game' or is 'normal' Common Grooming Techniques Used by Sex Offenders Cont.:  Common Grooming Techniques Used by Sex Offenders Cont. Gain parents/teachers trust then move to a position of authority Convince the victim that they must be compliant – 'Now remember your parents told you to follow whatever the babysitter says.' Lure the victim to a secluded place Win the child’s trust and respect Common Grooming Techniques Used by Sex Offenders Cont.:  Common Grooming Techniques Used by Sex Offenders Cont. Threats and intimidation to victim, pet, or to a significant other Pretend to 'wrestle' Convince the victim that they are 'learning' about sex Use other children to convince the victim that it is 'okay' or that 'everybody does it' Getting victim intoxicated or high Common Grooming Techniques Used by Sex Offenders Cont.:  Common Grooming Techniques Used by Sex Offenders Cont. Blackmail Child may be lured into a car when the offender states that the victim’s parent is hurt and they will take them to the hospital to see them Offer a ride home 'Low ball' technique Common Grooming Techniques Used by Sex Offenders Cont.:  Common Grooming Techniques Used by Sex Offenders Cont. Use position of authority (e.g., coach, boy scout leader, teachers assistant, Sunday school teacher, babysitter, crossing guard supervisor) Look for ways to be with kids without adult supervision Share common interests with victims Common Grooming Techniques Used by Sex Offenders Cont.:  Common Grooming Techniques Used by Sex Offenders Cont. Pretend to be handling children’s hygiene, washing, diapering, changing, etc., or medical needs Offer children safety or protection Use pornography to set a sexual tone Caution About Spotting “Grooming”:  Caution About Spotting 'Grooming' Some of the above mentioned items may or may not be grooming behaviors by offenders or non offenders. Some of these behaviors may be pro-social behaviors. Don’t over analyze!!! Some individuals have a tendency to observe 'grooming' at every turn…Be aware of this problem!!! What Sex Offenders Tell Us About Grooming:  What Sex Offenders Tell Us About Grooming What they look for in victims a. Vulnerable/Needy b. Not trusted by others c. Poor boundaries with others d. Will keep a secret e. Low self-esteem f. Few social supports/loner g. Behavior problems h. Not easily believed by others Sex Offense Cycles :  Sex Offense Cycles What is a Cycle?:  What is a Cycle? A sex offense cycle is basically an account of the circumstances, thoughts, emotions and behaviors before, during, and after the sexual offense. The sex offense cycle is similar to reviewing the films of a football game that was lost. The concept is to review the films to identify why the game was lost and determine how to hopefully prevent this from occurring again. Many Different Types of Cycles:  Many Different Types of Cycles For Example Sex offense cycle Anger cycle Depression cycle Substance abuse cycle Eating disorder cycle Krispy Kreme Doughnut buying cycle More on Cycles:  More on Cycles Cycles are practiced by all of us Not all cycles have a negative outcome (see Krispy Kreme Doughnut buying cycle) Lacking awareness of the cycle does not mean that one does not exist Vary in length Do not always occur in the exact same way Abbreviated cycles can exist Sex Offense Cycles in Treatment:  Sex Offense Cycles in Treatment Retrace the footsteps that lead to sex offense Cognitive behavior approach Minimum Components to sex offense cycle Circumstances Thoughts Emotions Behaviors Sex Offense Cycles in Treatment Cont. :  Sex Offense Cycles in Treatment Cont. 'Therapy speak' and abbreviations used in the sex offense sex offense cycle Examples Maladaptive Coping Responses (MCR) Triggers Red flags Abstinence Violation Effect (AVE) High Risk Factor (HRF’S) Seemingly Unimportant Decisions (SUD’s) Note: Glossary of treatment terms can clarify what many of these terms mean. Sex Offense Cycles in Treatment Cont.:  Sex Offense Cycles in Treatment Cont. 'Therapy speak' varies from therapist to therapist – definitions are not universal Sex offense cycle structure varies from therapist to therapist Sex Offense Cycle Formats:  Sex Offense Cycle Formats Narrative Short descriptions on 3 X 5 cards Dictated Summary statements written on 'wheel' Pictures (e.g., drawings, collages) Recorded on tape/video Put to memory What We Get From The Sex Offense Cycle :  What We Get From The Sex Offense Cycle Awareness of sex offending path Responsibility increased Denial is lessened Risk factors identified Risk situations identified Areas for improvement identified We learn from our past so we don’t repeat it. Relapse Prevention Plans (RPP):  Relapse Prevention Plans (RPP) What is a RPP?:  What is a RPP? The relapse prevention plan (RPP) is a detailed course of action that the individual can use to manage their risk factors to lower the chance of another sexual offense. Sexual and non-sexual issues are addressed in the RPP. What is a RPP? Cont.:  What is a RPP? Cont. The RPP = 'Game Plan' If clients want to avoid being 'defeated' again (sexually re-offending) they have to review their 'game films' (sex offense cycle) and make sure that they have a 'game plan' (RPP) to avoid making the same mistakes as they did before. Two Major Components to a RPP:  Two Major Components to a RPP Identifies 'problems areas' related to sex offending (e.g., high risk situations, high risk factors, maladaptive coping responses, seemingly unimportant decisions) Coping responses for managing 'problem areas' More on RPP:  More on RPP Vary in complexity and length More sophisticated offenders = more sophisticated RPP’s Less sophisticated offenders = less sophisticated RPP’s Tailored for client individual needs Formats for RPP vary from therapist to therapist Assessment :  Assessment Purpose of Assessment:  Purpose of Assessment A. To assess overall risk to the community B. To provide protection for victims and potential victims C. To provide written clinical assessment of a juvenile’s strengths, risks and deficits D. To identify and document treatment and developmental needs E. To determine amenability for treatment F. To identify individual differences, potential barriers to treatment, and static and dynamic risk factors G. To make recommendations for the management and supervision of the juvenile H. To provide information which can help identify the type and intensity of community based treatment, or the need for a more restrictive setting. Source: Colorado Sex Offender Management Board Standards – Juvenile http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom/Sex_Offender/SO_Pdfs/2003JUVENILESTANDARDS.pdf Areas of Evaluation:  Areas of Evaluation Intellectual functioning Neuropsychological screening Educational history General/Overall functioning Mental Health Psychopathology, Psychiatric illness Personality traits Mental disorders Source: Colorado Sex Offender Management Board Standards – Juvenile http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom/Sex_Offender/SO_Pdfs/2003JUVENILESTANDARDS.pdf Areas of Evaluation Cont. :  Areas of Evaluation Cont. Social history History of delinquency History of mental illness/ suicide/ psychiatric involvement (individual and family) Criminal history/ incarceration (individual and family) Source: Colorado Sex Offender Management Board Standards – Juvenile http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom/Sex_Offender/SO_Pdfs/2003JUVENILESTANDARDS.pdf Areas of Evaluation Cont.:  Areas of Evaluation Cont. History of psychiatric diagnosis Developmental history Developmental milestones History of abuse Disruptions in care Placement/transition history History of family structure History of counseling and intervention History of social services involvement Drug/Alcohol history Education history Source: Colorado Sex Offender Management Board Standards – Juvenile http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom/Sex_Offender/SO_Pdfs/2003JUVENILESTANDARDS.pdf Areas of Evaluation Cont.:  Areas of Evaluation Cont. Daily living skills Socialization Communication Motor skills Resiliency Self-Esteem/Self-Concept Self-Mastery/Self-Competence Source: Colorado Sex Offender Management Board Standards – Juvenile http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom/Sex_Offender/SO_Pdfs/2003JUVENILESTANDARDS.pdf Areas of Evaluation Cont.:  Areas of Evaluation Cont. Current Mental Status Stress/coping strategies Engagement of sexual deviance (cycle, fantasies) Current level of denial (offense, risk, history) Stability in current living situation Academic/vocational stability Communication/Problem solving skills Acting out behaviors Cognitive disorders Diagnostic impressions Source: Colorado Sex Offender Management Board Standards – Juvenile http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom/Sex_Offender/SO_Pdfs/2003JUVENILESTANDARDS.pdf Areas of Evaluation Cont.:  Areas of Evaluation Cont. Current family composition History of divorce/separation Current mental illness Drug/Alcohol use Cultural issues Source: Colorado Sex Offender Management Board Standards – Juvenile http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom/Sex_Offender/SO_Pdfs/2003JUVENILESTANDARDS.pdf Areas of Evaluation Cont.:  Areas of Evaluation Cont. Sex history Sexual knowledge (where learned) Sex education history Non-offending sexual history Masturbation (age of onset, frequency, fantasies) Sexual compulsivity/ impulsivity Sexual victimization Range of sexual behaviors Sexual arousal/interest Sexual preference/ orientation Sexual dysfunctions Sexual attitudes/distortions Sexually abusive behavior Source: Colorado Sex Offender Management Board Standards – Juvenile http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom/Sex_Offender/SO_Pdfs/2003JUVENILESTANDARDS.pdf Areas of Evaluation Cont.:  Areas of Evaluation Cont. Types of sexually abusive behavior the youth has committed Indications of progression over time Level of aggression Frequency of behavior Style and type of victim access Preferred victim type Associated arousal patterns Source: Colorado Sex Offender Management Board Standards – Juvenile http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom/Sex_Offender/SO_Pdfs/2003JUVENILESTANDARDS.pdf Areas of Evaluation Cont.:  Areas of Evaluation Cont. Changes in sexual abuse behaviors or related thinking The youth’s intent and motivation The extent of the youth’s openness and honesty Internal and external risk factors Victim empathy Victim selection characteristics/typology Source: Colorado Sex Offender Management Board Standards – Juvenile http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom/Sex_Offender/SO_Pdfs/2003JUVENILESTANDARDS.pdf Areas of Evaluation Cont.:  Areas of Evaluation Cont. Driving Adjudications Offenses Non-charged offenses Property offenses Source: Colorado Sex Offender Management Board Standards – Juvenile http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom/Sex_Offender/SO_Pdfs/2003JUVENILESTANDARDS.pdf Areas of Evaluation Cont.:  Areas of Evaluation Cont. Risk to self Denial of offense/risk/history Risk to Others (Violent) Conduct Criminal behavior Risk for sexual recidivism Source: Colorado Sex Offender Management Board Standards – Juvenile http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom/Sex_Offender/SO_Pdfs/2003JUVENILESTANDARDS.pdf Areas of Evaluation Cont.:  Areas of Evaluation Cont. Native environment Current living situation Current support Group/Resources Friends/associates Extra-curricular activities Source: Colorado Sex Offender Management Board Standards – Juvenile http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom/Sex_Offender/SO_Pdfs/2003JUVENILESTANDARDS.pdf Areas of Evaluation Cont.:  Areas of Evaluation Cont. Awareness, Internalization of own behavior against others Attribution of responsibility External support Long range planning Readiness for services Source: Colorado Sex Offender Management Board Standards – Juvenile http://dcj.state.co.us/odvsom/Sex_Offender/SO_Pdfs/2003JUVENILESTANDARDS.pdf Common Assessment Tools Used:  Common Assessment Tools Used Some Examples: J-SOAP-II (R. Prentky and S. Righthand) http://www.ncsby.org/pages/publications/J-SOAPManual.pdf  ERASOR Dr. James R. Worling Phone (416) 326-0664, Fax (416) 326-6581 or obtain PDF file by sending an e-mail to [email protected] Abel Assessment for Sexual Interests (AASI) Penile Plethysmography (PPG) Polygraph Numerous assessment tools on the market. The quality is variable for many of them…Some Good…Some Not So Good Treatment of Juvenile Sex Offenders:  Treatment of Juvenile Sex Offenders Sex Offense Specific Treatment Types:  Sex Offense Specific Treatment Types Psycho-educational Individual Group Family Multisystemic Therapy (MST) Setting Outpatient Residential (Locked/Unlocked) Correctional The next slide comes from:Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: A review of the Professional Literature, ‘01:  The next slide comes from: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: A review of the Professional Literature, ‘01 Slide54:  Contributing Risk Factors Associated with Sexual Offending:  Contributing Risk Factors Associated with Sexual Offending The following list of contributing risk factors should not be confused with risk factors for sexual recidivism. These risk factors may also be related to general criminal behavior and poor quality of life and functioning. :  The following list of contributing risk factors should not be confused with risk factors for sexual recidivism. These risk factors may also be related to general criminal behavior and poor quality of life and functioning. Common Risk Factors:  Common Risk Factors Problems with power/control Seeing others as being sex objects Having displaced anger Ongoing or past neglect/emotional abuse/physical abuse/sexual abuse Problems with deviant sexual arousal Family conflicts Low self-esteem Problems with empathy Common Risk Factors Cont. :  Common Risk Factors Cont. Social skills deficits Viewing violence/manipulation/intimidation as totally or partially acceptable Negative peer group Lack of sexual knowledge Neglect/emotional abuse/physical abuse/sexual abuse seen as totally or partially acceptable Emotionally numb Lack of positive leisure activities Lack of a positive support group Common Risk Factors Cont.:  Common Risk Factors Cont. Rigid views of sex roles – sexist belief system Spiritual bankruptcy Mental illness Confusing sex, love , and affection Intimacy deficits Inability to understand emotions Communication deficits Identification with younger children Having an 'I don’t care attitude' Important to Remember :  Important to Remember Each individual commits their offense(s) for unique reasons. There are almost always several reasons (risk factors) why individuals make the choice to sexually act out. It is important to remember that risk factors are not excuses for sexual abuse. Risk factors may influence an offender’s decision to offend, but they do not cause the offender to commit their offense. The offender still makes an active choice to commit a sexual offense. Denial :  Denial General Information on Denial:  General Information on Denial To be expected…almost universal – highest at the beginning of treatment Prevents feeling overwhelmed with reality Provides short term gain More than 'I didn’t do it.' Can surface at any point Often displayed when new and/or emotionally difficult information is processed or when an object of desire is within grasp Not an all or nothing phenomena – intensity varies Will remain with some clients indefinitely Is Denial a Significant Issue in Treatment?:  Is Denial a Significant Issue in Treatment? Mixed results Positive Offenders can learn information without admitting (e.g., Maletzky and McFarland ’95) May break denial with time and patience (e.g., Murphy and Berry ’95, Burditt ’95, O’ Donohue and Letourneau ’93). Appears to not affect sexual recidivism (Hanson and Bussiere ’98) Negative Operational definition of 'denial' not clear Appears to be more of a problem if paired with low motivation for behavioral change and risk taking behaviors Common Reasons Why Sex Offenders Deny:  Common Reasons Why Sex Offenders Deny Save face Fear of what others will think of them Fear that their family and friends will have nothing to do with them Fear of legal consequences Belief that they’ll go crazy if they talk about it Belief that the problem will just go away if they deny it Desire to avoid fear, guilt, shame, and possibly dealing with their own history of being abused Common Reasons Why Sex Offenders Deny Cont. :  Common Reasons Why Sex Offenders Deny Cont. Belief that the abuse wasn’t wrong Unwillingness to stop doing something (sex offending) that they enjoy Lack of trust in others Desire to protect self in a possibly hostile environment Fear that they will be treated differently by others Forgetting of certain details of the sex offense due to its having occurred a long time ago Belief that a sex offense never really occurred if they were not charged legally with a sex offense (e.g., arrested for 'battery' for grabbing a stranger’s breast without consent, arrested for 'disorderly conduct' for exposing themselves, received court supervision for a sex offense) Family and friends of the offender encourage and/or support denial Different Types of Denial:  Different Types of Denial Happel and Auffrey (’95) suggested denial had 12 steps: Denial of the crime itself Denial of responsibility for the crime Denial of intent and premeditation Denial of deviant arousal and fantasies Denial of the frequency of the deviant acts Different Types of Denial Cont.:  Different Types of Denial Cont. 6. Denial of the intrusiveness of the offense behavior 7. Denial of injury to victims 8. Denial of sexual gratification from the offense behaviors 9. Denial of various types of grooming behavior Different Types of Denial Cont.:  Different Types of Denial Cont. 10. Denial of risk management activities 11. Denial of the difficulty of change and need for help 12. Denial of relapse potential and possible recidivism With the exception of the first, these are all minimizations of an admitted behavior. A continuum of denial (Taylor, ’96):  A continuum of denial (Taylor, ’96) Hopeless Denial Nothing happened. Something happened but it wasn’t me. Something happened but they wanted it to. Something happened but not as bad as they said. It happened, but at the time I didn’t know it was wrong. It happened but it was an accident. It happened, I don’t know what came over me. It happened, but it wasn’t planned. It happened, but it never happened before and I haven’t thought about it since. It happened, I planned it and I know how it hurt people so it won’t happen again. It happened, I planned it, it hurt people. I understand now about my thinking so it won’t happen again. It happened, I planned it. It hurt people. I understand my thinking. I think about it still, but this is my relapse prevention if I feel tempted again. Hopeful Responsible

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