Kinard Session 5 Collections-CBD

Information about Kinard Session 5 Collections-CBD

Published on November 13, 2014

Author: csimkovich

Source: authorstream.com

Content

PowerPoint Presentation: The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS):Challenges and Opportunities for Plant Explorations United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Henry Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC) For APGA Plant Collections Symposium Gary Kinard, Research Leader, Natl Germplasm Resources Lab November 7, 2014 U.S. National Plant Germplasm System Collections: U.S. National Plant Germplasm System Collections About 567,000 accessions. >2,200 genera. >14,700 species. All genetic resources in NPGS are considered a global asset. Freely available to all researchers. NPGS Acquisitions: NPGS Acquisitions 5,000-8,000 per year. Most current accessions predate the CBD. Sources of new acquisitions include: Donations Exchange with other germplasm collections Foreign and domestic plant explorations Since 1898 USDA has funded organized plant explorations: Since 1898 USDA has funded organized plant explorations P.H. Dorsett, China, 1924 Peanut landrace-Guatemala Helianthus californicus - California About 20% within the U.S. and 80% to foreign countries long term, shifting percentages recently. 735 since 1898. Fills gaps; Focus is on crop wild relatives; Highly collaborative. Funded through competitive proposals sent to NGRL. Material deposited into NPGS and documented in GRIN. Code of conduct for collectors. Niles Nansen, Russia, 1906 Access Principles for NPGS acquisitions: Access Principles for NPGS acquisitions Recognizes national sovereignty over PGR. Follow regulations established by national governments. Prior informed consent (PIC) from designated national authority or their designee in all countries that are a party to CBD. NGRL Plant Exchange Office (PEO) coordinates PIC issues. Access includes terms for mutually agreeable benefit sharing. The NPGS is amenable to many benefit sharing options : The NPGS is amenable to many benefit sharing options Exploration expenses; shared germplasm. Education and training in genetic resource conservation. Strengthened institutional and professional ties for additional collaboration. Joint publications or related technology transfer. Material resources for capacity strengthening (e.g. supplies, infrastructure improvements). PowerPoint Presentation: However, other benefit options are problematic especially direct payment access fees, up-front fees, licensing fees, or royalties associated with commercialization. Furthermore, some terms of agreement are not acceptable to the NPGS including non-distribution agreements, required permissions for transfer to third parties, prohibitions on commercialization, prohibitions on use in biotechnology, and requirements to re-negotiate for certain uses. So, has access become problematic in cases where those kinds of issues are in involved? PowerPoint Presentation: Yes, of course it has….. It has become more difficult to fill gaps in the NPGS collections. That, in turn, affects research programs. An ARS scientist working on potato germplasm systematics was redirected to work on similar research in carrots in part because access to potato germplasm had become a barrier to conducting the research in a scientifically sound way. Fortunately, that is an unusual and extreme example of the affects of more challenging access. PowerPoint Presentation: Access Request Outcomes for NPGS Foreign Plant Explorations 1993-2014 PowerPoint Presentation: We are concerned about the challenges these issues present and it certainly redefines the rules of engagement. However, the NPGS is not in danger of becoming irrelevant in germplasm acquisition and conservation……. We have more than 567,000 accessions freely available. We still are conducting about 12 NPGS funded explorations per year, several of which are to foreign countries. We are also emphasizing more domestic explorations, which is both pragmatic and appropriate. There are new interpretations that challenge the long held paradigm that the U.S. is “gene pool” poor. PowerPoint Presentation: The NPGS actions will continue to be guided by several broad principles: Conferring with Executive Branch colleagues (e.g. State Department, USDA-FAS, USAID) to harmonize U.S. actions. Placing a strong emphasis on ensuring plant explorations include clear documentation of prior informed consent from appropriate national authorities. Stressing the importance that all NPGS acquisitions include terms that allow us to commit to in perpetuity curation, and the ability to distribute freely and without restrictions. PowerPoint Presentation: We will also….. Continue and increase, as much as possible, our engagement with PGR programs and officials in foreign countries to build collaboration bridges (e.g. with China through ongoing dialogue with MOST and CAAS). Continue to emphasize the value added components of the NPGS (e.g. long term curation using best practices, superior documentation and tracking capabilities through our databases, inputs into characterization of genotypic and phenotypic traits, enhancements which promote utilization to solve real problems). PowerPoint Presentation: Thanks! [email protected]

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