Kirkpatrick

Information about Kirkpatrick

Published on August 7, 2007

Author: Haggrid

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Sex, Caregiving, and Love in Romantic Relationships: Other Perspectives from Evolutionary Psychology:  Sex, Caregiving, and Love in Romantic Relationships: Other Perspectives from Evolutionary Psychology Lee A. Kirkpatrick College of William andamp; Mary September, 2004 Preface:  Preface Outstanding problem in adult attachment theory: Integrate attachment with mating and other systems within an evolutionary perspective From evolutionary perspective, must begin with mating/reproduction Potential role of attachment-like processes must be understood in terms of contribution to adaptive mating/reproductive strategies Cf. infancy, where survival is chief life task Outline:  Outline I. Human Mating Strategies pluralistic and facultative II. Attachment control system vs. affectional bond III. Love and Caregiving commitment and altruism IV. Individual Differences in Adult Attachment sociosexuality and long-term/short-term mating V. Conclusions I. Human Mating Strategies: Theory:  I. Human Mating Strategies: Theory Human mating strategies as pluralistic long-term vs. short-term strategies in both sexes (Buss andamp; Schmitt, 1993) restricted vs. unrestricted sociosexuality in both sexes (Gangestad andamp; Simpson, 1990) Separate neurotransmitter systems enable simultaneous pursuit of multiple mating strategies (Fisher, 2002) Human mating strategies as facultative adaptive costs and benefits (Buss andamp; Schmitt, 1993) ecological factors (Gangestad andamp; Simpson, 2000) I. Human Mating Strategies: Evidence:  I. Human Mating Strategies: Evidence Cross-cultural evidence Prevalence of divorce, extra-marital affairs, prostitution, polygamy; variation in sociosexuality Behavioral and self-report evidence Desire for multiple sex partners, content of sexual fantasies, willingness to engage in sex with strangers, etc. (esp. among men) Other adaptations Comparative testis size, sexual dimorphism in stature Mechanisms for sperm competition Sexual jealousy, other defenses against mate-poaching I. Human Mating Strategies: Conclusion:  I. Human Mating Strategies: Conclusion Humans are not designed to be exclusively (or even 'predominantly') monogamous However, no reason why adult-attachment researchers need to argue or assume so Existence of ST mating systems in no way renders LT mating less important or adaptive Indeed, existence and power of ST mating systems might be precisely why attachment-like mechanisms could play an important role in romantic love But, any attachment-like processes likely to be related only to long-term mating context II. Attachment: System or Bond?:  II. Attachment: System or Bond? In application of attachment theory to romantic love, which facet(s) of 'attachment' are relevant? attachment as a control system attachment as an affectional bond Confusion generated by usage of same term for both seems to imply that they necessarily go together but, they are separable and functionally distinct II. Attachment: as a System:  II. Attachment: as a System Behavior-regulation system in infancy Adaptive function: protection Set point; system activation vs. deactivation; etc. Inputs to system external (caregiver’s location, danger) internal (health, injury, fatigue) Outputs from system Crying, calling, reaching, other attachment behaviors Distinct from complementary caregiving system Evolution of caregiving system almost surely predates evolution of attachment system II. Attachment: as a System:  II. Attachment: as a System Not central to adult romantic relationships protection/survival only one of many adult life tasks; mating/reproduction become paramount cannot assume reliable caregiving from spouse based on genetic relatedness, as in infancy spouse usually not solution to adult-sized dangers leads to expectation of sex differences adults posses diverse repertoire of strategies for coping with various threats and dangers System cannot be exapted for entirely different function without major reorganization/redesign II. Attachment: as a Bond :  II. Attachment: as a Bond Children feel 'love' for caregivers and other context-dependent emotions But also parents 'love' their children adult romantic partners 'love' each other close friends 'love' each other as well Emotional bond as a distinct mechanism vs. attachment, caregiving, and mating systems shared neurophysiology (oxytocin, vassopressin) What is its adaptive function? why aren’t these simply 'cold cognitive' systems? III. Love and Caregiving: Commitment :  III. Love and Caregiving: Commitment Robert Frank on love and social emotions love as a commitment device landlords-and-tenants analogy turn off mate-search mechanisms derogate alternatives; enhance partner get on with mating and childrearing 'Love' in other contexts children: temptations to seek alternative caregivers mothers: temptations to 'give up,' redirect resources III. Love and Caregiving: Altruism:  III. Love and Caregiving: Altruism Tooby andamp; Cosmides: the Banker’s Paradox 3rd evolutionary path to altruism (vs. reciprocal altruism and kin selection) friendships as 'deep engagement' relationships evolutionary logic: invest in (be altruistic) to others to whom your own welfare is yoked Fisherian runaway process overrides short-term social-exchange considerations in favor of long-term (and difficult-to-calculate) benefits III. Love and Caregiving:  III. Love and Caregiving Two distinct 'love' systems in adults? Love as Commitment Device (per Frank) passionate love, infatuation, limerance, attraction commit to a partner choice for long-term mating long enough for mating, caregiving thru infancy Deep Engagement (per Tooby andamp; Cosmides) companionate love, goal-corrected partnership same mechanism as in close friendships 'attachment' part of adult romantic relationships? IV. Individual Differences:  IV. Individual Differences Preceding arguments suggest limited role of attachment (system) in romantic relationships Might measured individual differences in 'adult attachment' reflect mating strategies instead? I argued previously that avoidant-vs.-secure dimension might primarily reflect short- vs. long-term (unrestricted vs. restricted) mating orientation e.g., avoidants don’t believe in love, dislike intimacy, have shorter relationships, etc. but, several empirical studies to date have shown only weak correlation between SOI and adult attachment IV. Individual Differences:  IV. Individual Differences Jenee James M.A. thesis (Wandamp;M, 2004) original SOI measures primarily attitudes toward short-term mating; assumes long-term as opposite sociosexuality as a bipolar dimension not consistent with pluralistic mating theories developed new measure with two separate (and only moderately correlated) scales for LT and ST mating Results: ST dimension, like SOI, only weakly correlated with adult attachment measures LT dimension correlates approx. r = -.50 with avoidance (vs. security) V. Conclusions:  V. Conclusions Role of 'attachment' in adult romantic relationships may be highly circumscribed Among multiple mating systems, only some (long-term, restricted) involve attachment-like processes Among multiple facets of attachment, only some (attachment as affectional bond) may be relevant Among multiple affectional bonds, only one (akin to friendship, companionate love) may be relevant Individual differences in 'adult attachment' may largely reflect variation in mating orientations/ sociosexuality, not attachment per se V. Conclusions (cont.):  V. Conclusions (cont.) Devil’s advocate role Deliberately staked out most extreme position Challenge researchers to question assumptions and consider alternative hypotheses In particular, design empirical research to rule out these alternatives in more rigorous tests of theory Seriously confronting these alternative hypotheses is crucial if adult-attachment theory is to retain the evolutionary foundation proposed by Bowlby from which the theory derives its power

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Haggrid

makyaj
18. 06. 2007
0 views

makyaj

2407224601
22. 04. 2008
0 views

2407224601

0616PVR76491
17. 04. 2008
0 views

0616PVR76491

DART Slideshow
17. 04. 2008
0 views

DART Slideshow

AdvFin 2008 01 Introduction
10. 04. 2008
0 views

AdvFin 2008 01 Introduction

dept revenue presentation
09. 04. 2008
0 views

dept revenue presentation

het607 m06a01
07. 04. 2008
0 views

het607 m06a01

20061116 intl ops
30. 03. 2008
0 views

20061116 intl ops

2004 AMCHAM Doorknock
27. 03. 2008
0 views

2004 AMCHAM Doorknock

pdhpe moderate
18. 06. 2007
0 views

pdhpe moderate

Where the Red Fern Grows
03. 10. 2007
0 views

Where the Red Fern Grows

tutorial 1
19. 09. 2007
0 views

tutorial 1

Future Law Enforcement ppt
19. 09. 2007
0 views

Future Law Enforcement ppt

231B 2006 Suetterlin Lec1
12. 10. 2007
0 views

231B 2006 Suetterlin Lec1

Crocodile
12. 10. 2007
0 views

Crocodile

VLSI Symp 2 10 2007
09. 10. 2007
0 views

VLSI Symp 2 10 2007

2003 08 27 Schelle Wolff Carola
24. 10. 2007
0 views

2003 08 27 Schelle Wolff Carola

875 PERL 06 mini
02. 11. 2007
0 views

875 PERL 06 mini

Where the Sidewalk Ends
26. 10. 2007
0 views

Where the Sidewalk Ends

CNV
22. 10. 2007
0 views

CNV

pfit
07. 11. 2007
0 views

pfit

scholz
16. 11. 2007
0 views

scholz

DDR Frog Licking
17. 11. 2007
0 views

DDR Frog Licking

The Suffering of Jesus
17. 08. 2007
0 views

The Suffering of Jesus

lecture5
28. 11. 2007
0 views

lecture5

ontology
11. 12. 2007
0 views

ontology

predationmurray
01. 01. 2008
0 views

predationmurray

academy mission vision
03. 01. 2008
0 views

academy mission vision

Maldives presentation
07. 08. 2007
0 views

Maldives presentation

mood disorders
07. 08. 2007
0 views

mood disorders

Loh Verma Michalowski CPS04
07. 08. 2007
0 views

Loh Verma Michalowski CPS04

Karen Middleton
07. 08. 2007
0 views

Karen Middleton

Linkage ordinal data hm
07. 08. 2007
0 views

Linkage ordinal data hm

modern Day Slavery
07. 08. 2007
0 views

modern Day Slavery

MOA Presentation Mandsager final
07. 08. 2007
0 views

MOA Presentation Mandsager final

oct15 insurance reinsurance RGA
07. 08. 2007
0 views

oct15 insurance reinsurance RGA

maldives khaleel
07. 08. 2007
0 views

maldives khaleel

peters HTC BlueGene CondorWeek
19. 09. 2007
0 views

peters HTC BlueGene CondorWeek

mostly oopsla03
19. 09. 2007
0 views

mostly oopsla03

2005 Loftus Introduced Fish
19. 11. 2007
0 views

2005 Loftus Introduced Fish

UNTITLED
07. 08. 2007
0 views

UNTITLED

knoblock
23. 10. 2007
0 views

knoblock

India US Dual Use Goldman
17. 08. 2007
0 views

India US Dual Use Goldman

RedSquare Bike Ride Eng
27. 09. 2007
0 views

RedSquare Bike Ride Eng

Financing EFA Maldives
07. 08. 2007
0 views

Financing EFA Maldives

Languages Models Factories
14. 11. 2007
0 views

Languages Models Factories

Ge11cDIfferentiation
20. 02. 2008
0 views

Ge11cDIfferentiation

1950s
24. 02. 2008
0 views

1950s

Dual Language Posterboard 2
24. 02. 2008
0 views

Dual Language Posterboard 2

200792013611855
10. 10. 2007
0 views

200792013611855

as2007 aviation careers brief
28. 02. 2008
0 views

as2007 aviation careers brief

BiodieselFuelQuality pt1
29. 02. 2008
0 views

BiodieselFuelQuality pt1

2005 Inflammation
04. 03. 2008
0 views

2005 Inflammation

MI 2006 final 11 9
07. 08. 2007
0 views

MI 2006 final 11 9

figuerola lucifer
15. 10. 2007
0 views

figuerola lucifer

TOXICVB
05. 01. 2008
0 views

TOXICVB

GENIe ISA
10. 03. 2008
0 views

GENIe ISA

Pretty Blue Planet
19. 09. 2007
0 views

Pretty Blue Planet

AM1 DTV China EN
11. 10. 2007
0 views

AM1 DTV China EN

2007RoyalEurope consumer
01. 11. 2007
0 views

2007RoyalEurope consumer

YTBv4
12. 03. 2008
0 views

YTBv4

SevenBrochure
26. 03. 2008
0 views

SevenBrochure

babar
15. 10. 2007
0 views

babar

memphis
23. 10. 2007
0 views

memphis

NASBE Asthma Policies
07. 08. 2007
0 views

NASBE Asthma Policies

Apache Harmony Short Talk
19. 09. 2007
0 views

Apache Harmony Short Talk

DSF
07. 01. 2008
0 views

DSF

Module 10 C Older Adults
07. 08. 2007
0 views

Module 10 C Older Adults

CEC 999 2006 018
11. 10. 2007
0 views

CEC 999 2006 018

NNER MAGAZIN neu
18. 06. 2007
0 views

NNER MAGAZIN neu

kids slide show
18. 06. 2007
0 views

kids slide show

Inco Present1
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Inco Present1

nifty fifty thrifty 2
18. 06. 2007
0 views

nifty fifty thrifty 2

Navigator
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Navigator

mudancas internas2 lila
18. 06. 2007
0 views

mudancas internas2 lila

MMC Selection271006
18. 06. 2007
0 views

MMC Selection271006

MD Rhythm Software
18. 06. 2007
0 views

MD Rhythm Software

Experian
19. 09. 2007
0 views

Experian

urb1
27. 11. 2007
0 views

urb1

presentation reunion cnds clubs
18. 06. 2007
0 views

presentation reunion cnds clubs

PMA Veri Sign Hot Trends
18. 06. 2007
0 views

PMA Veri Sign Hot Trends

Phys Act2 Ron Johnston
18. 06. 2007
0 views

Phys Act2 Ron Johnston

cdp 8 12 06
19. 09. 2007
0 views

cdp 8 12 06

cdp 12 06
19. 09. 2007
0 views

cdp 12 06

061101 Panofsky
17. 08. 2007
0 views

061101 Panofsky

Saints or Sinners
17. 08. 2007
0 views

Saints or Sinners

memoria
18. 06. 2007
0 views

memoria

00021386
19. 09. 2007
0 views

00021386

peso fall protection w
04. 01. 2008
0 views

peso fall protection w

irony
15. 06. 2007
0 views

irony

HOUSE HOLDER
15. 06. 2007
0 views

HOUSE HOLDER

god you are looking for
15. 06. 2007
0 views

god you are looking for

generadio7
15. 06. 2007
0 views

generadio7

friendship cinquain
15. 06. 2007
0 views

friendship cinquain

foreign words in english
15. 06. 2007
0 views

foreign words in english

FME UC 2006 Opening Session
15. 06. 2007
0 views

FME UC 2006 Opening Session

First fun in the afternoon
15. 06. 2007
0 views

First fun in the afternoon

feml fool 2006
15. 06. 2007
0 views

feml fool 2006

FATE AND CHANCE WEEK I 2006
15. 06. 2007
0 views

FATE AND CHANCE WEEK I 2006

FATE AND CHANCE WEEK 2 2006
15. 06. 2007
0 views

FATE AND CHANCE WEEK 2 2006

faq remarriage
15. 06. 2007
0 views

faq remarriage

faq commitment
15. 06. 2007
0 views

faq commitment

Fabulously Funny Facts
15. 06. 2007
0 views

Fabulously Funny Facts

NEW MEMBERS
18. 06. 2007
0 views

NEW MEMBERS

FOL and Prolog
15. 06. 2007
0 views

FOL and Prolog

mouton
18. 06. 2007
0 views

mouton

NPR
18. 06. 2007
0 views

NPR

NOWARonIran
16. 10. 2007
0 views

NOWARonIran

maendsregler
18. 06. 2007
0 views

maendsregler

Les arts figuratives al s XIX
01. 10. 2007
0 views

Les arts figuratives al s XIX

texas emission
26. 02. 2008
0 views

texas emission

NFI Pact presentation copy 2
07. 08. 2007
0 views

NFI Pact presentation copy 2

casestudy
22. 10. 2007
0 views

casestudy

Thankyou Lord
17. 08. 2007
0 views

Thankyou Lord

megagreen
18. 06. 2007
0 views

megagreen

SRaha
17. 08. 2007
0 views

SRaha

Glasgow Anand
15. 11. 2007
0 views

Glasgow Anand

2 day training slideshow
07. 08. 2007
0 views

2 day training slideshow

Finch
15. 11. 2007
0 views

Finch