Know les for publish 2

Information about Know les for publish 2

Published on April 17, 2008

Author: Tito1

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Restoring America’s Image Abroad: Communicating with Skeptical Audiences:  Restoring America’s Image Abroad: Communicating with Skeptical Audiences William K. Fung Multidisciplinary Workshop October 16-17, 2003 Lowering Resistance to Persuasion: Lessons from Research:  Lowering Resistance to Persuasion: Lessons from Research Eric S. Knowles, Ph.D. Professor of Psychology University of Arkansas Copyright 2003 by Eric Knowles Outline for the next 25 Minutes:  Outline for the next 25 Minutes Two Strategies for Persuasion: Alpha and Omega Discuss Resistance Dealing Directly Resistance Dealing Indirectly Resistance Approach-Avoidance Model:  Approach-Avoidance Model Goals invoke many motives Approach motives promote movement toward a goal Avoidance motives resist movement toward a goal Two Strategies for Persuasion and Attitude Change:  Two Strategies for Persuasion and Attitude Change Alpha Strategies Approach Based Strategies Increase Desire Omega Strategies Avoidance Based Strategies Reduce Resistance Two Strategies for Persuasion and Attitude Change:  Two Strategies for Persuasion and Attitude Change Alpha Strategies Approach Based Strategies Increase Desire Omega Strategies Avoidance Based Strategies Reduce Resistance Most Persuasion Is Alpha Based: Aimed at Increasing Approach Forces :  Most Persuasion Is Alpha Based: Aimed at Increasing Approach Forces Strong arguments Added incentives Attractive and expert sources Perceptions of scarcity Consistency and commitment Social consensus Liking and reciprocity Omega Based Change Strategies:  Omega Based Change Strategies Sidestep resistance Address resistance directly Address resistance indirectly Distract resistance Disrupt resistance Consume resistance Use resistance to promote change Resistance Has a Several Facets:  Resistance Has a Several Facets Reactance:  Reactance Reaction to being influenced Pushing back Restoring freedom of choice Distrust:  Distrust Contrariness Counterarguing Wariness Paranoia Scrutiny:  Scrutiny Careful decision making Consideration of all alternatives Deliberativeness Indecision Inertia:  Inertia Set in ways Not making changes Little attention to offers, messages, new opinions Two Consequences of Resistance:  Two Consequences of Resistance ACTIVE Resistance Engages persuader, argues, counterargues, aggressive, involved Interactive with persuader, respond to offers and arguments AVOIDANT Resistance Dismisses persuader, inattentive, disengaged Unresponsive to offers or arguments Dealing Directly with Active Resistance:  Dealing Directly with Active Resistance LISTEN Resistance is informative The implicit content of resistance is a pathway to its reduction ACKNOWLDGE Being heard reduces resistance Being heard is necessary for a dialogue HONOR Look for the opportunities in resistance, not the dangers. Acknowledging Resistance:  Acknowledging Resistance If students paid a little more tuition, they’d get a much better education! Do you agree? (1 = Not at all, 9 = Very Much) Study 1: Mean = 2.13 Study 2: Mean = 2.46 I know you won’t want to agree with this, but if students paid a little more tuition, they’d get a much better education! Study 1: 3.31 Study 2: 3.31 Acknowledging Resistance in a Simple Request:  Acknowledging Resistance in a Simple Request Would you mail this letter for me? 71% complied I know you might not want to, but would you mail this letter for me? 100% complied Address Resistance Directly With Guarantees:  Address Resistance Directly With Guarantees Address Resistance Directly With Information:  Address Resistance Directly With Information Identify sources of resistance. Counterargue—provide information to counter the resistance. “Two–sided” messages effective when people already resistant. “Two-sided” messages boomerang when people not resistant. Dealing Indirectly with Active Resistance:  Dealing Indirectly with Active Resistance Raise the Comparison Change the Time Frame Reframe Resistance Use Choice to Separate Resistance and Acceptance Raise the Comparison:  Raise the Comparison Judgments don’t occur in a vacuum Judgments always involve a comparison, even if only implicit Olympic Medals and Comparisons:  Olympic Medals and Comparisons Silver Medal Winners Dejected Compare up I didn’t win! Bronze Medal Winners Very Happy Compare “down” I got a medal! Medvec, Madey, & Gilovich, 1995 Silver Silver Bronze Bronze Comparison as Influence Strategy:  Comparison as Influence Strategy Alpha Strategy Compare benefits downward My product does more than theirs Omega Strategy Compare costs up My service is easier to use than theirs Change the Time Frame:  Change the Time Frame Immediate  focus on the specific implementation: How can I do it? Distant Future  focus on the general opportunities: What will I get? As Choices Move Into the Future:  As Choices Move Into the Future Value more, Probability less Ends more, Means less Primary Goals more, Secondary Goals less Trope & Liberman, 2003, Temporal Construal Theory Reframe Resistance:  Reframe Resistance Meet resistance with reflection “your reluctance shows that you are really concerned about this process, we are too” Meet resistance by strategically reframing the problem “I’m not your enemy, time is your enemy” “My hope is that you make a choice, not that you take this suggestion” Use Choice to Separate Resistance and Acceptance:  Use Choice to Separate Resistance and Acceptance Meaningful choice allows people to separate the desire to accept and the desire to resistance on different alternatives. Take-it or leave-it choices focus both these desires on the same alternative. Summary:  Summary Resistance is informative Resistance can be overwhelmed (but not diminished) by Alpha Persuasion Strategies Resistance can be diminished or disarmed by Omega Persuasion Strategies Read more about this approach at www.uark.edu/~omega

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