Published on September 12, 2011
KNOWLEDGE IN DISCOURSE: KNOWLEDGE IN DISCOURSE Schemata: Schemata Definition: pre-existent knowledge of typical situations. Communication suffers when people make false assumption about shared schemata. Schemata: Schemata A witness in a court case 1. I woke up at seven forty. I had breakfast at 8 and left for work at about 8.30. 2. I woke up at seven forty. I was wearing pyjamas. After lying still for a few minutes, I threw back the duvet, got out of bed, walked to the door of the bedroom, opened the door, switched on the light … How does the witness know which detail is required or omitted? Schemata: Schemata Schemata allow human communication to be economical. I went to work. I went to work in my clothes. A sender needs only mention features which are not contained in it. I went to work in my pyjamas Evidence for schemata: Evidence for schemata 1. Assumption is made to fills in details which were not actually given. I go to bed at 11 p.m. Evidence for schemata: Evidence for schemata 2. The use of definite article. We decided to call a taxi . Unfortunately, the driver spent a long time finding our house. Evidence for schemata: Evidence for schemata 3. Interpretation of words with more than one meaning. The king put his seal on the letter. Delete any information which you think the two children would have in common.: Delete any information which you think the two children would have in common. Pete: Do you like autumn Bob? Bob: No I don’t. It’s a dull season. The grass is yellow. The leaves fall from the trees. It often rains. I like winter and summer. In summer the days are longer and warmer and the nights are shorter than in autumn. Pete: But I like autumn. I think it’s a beautiful season. I like to go to the forest in autumn. It’s so beautiful. Bob: And what about spring? Do you like it? Pete: Oh yes, I like it very much, too. The leaves of the trees are small and green. The grass is green, too. It’s warm in spring. I think that all seasons are wonderful. Rewrite the passage, remove superfluous information: Rewrite the passage, remove superfluous information Earnest Miller Hemingway was born indoors in 1899 at Oak Park, a highly respectable suburb of Chicago, a large city in the USA. The young Earnest, who grew older as the years passed by, attended a local school, and although energetic and successful in all school activities, he twice ran away from home, though he returned on both occasions. In 1921 he was married of his own free will to a woman he had met and fallen in love with. That year he came to Europe by boat as a roving correspondent. He ate food every day and slept at night. Write a cohesive coherent text of eight sentences or fewer. : Write a cohesive coherent text of eight sentences or fewer. George Orwell He was born in India. He was born in 1903. His real name was Eric Blair. His father worked in the Bengal Civil Service. He went to Eton. He left Eton in 1921. He joined the Imperial Police in Burma. He spent five years working in the police force. He returned to Europe. He worked in a number of menial jobs. He wrote a book about these experiences. The book was called Down and Out in Paris and London. He fought on the republican side in the Spanish Civil War. He wrote a book about this experience. This book was called Homage to Catalonia. It was published in 1938. He also wrote novels. His best known novels are Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four. Animal Farm was published in 1945. Nineteen Eighty-Four was published in 1949. Animal Farm is a satire on communism. Nineteen Eighty-Four describes a nightmare future world. He died in 1950. He died from tuberculosis. He was 47. Slide 11: Find evidence of schemata for the use of definite article. I bought a bicycle yesterday. The frame is extra large. I looked into the room. The ceiling was very high. A bus came roaring round the corner. The vehicle nearly flattened the pedestrian. Draw a diameter in black. The line is about three inches. She decided to sell the cow and buy a shop with the money. It was dark and stormy the night the millionaire was murdered. The killer left no clues for the police to trace.