Kodal MALTA

Information about Kodal MALTA

Published on October 4, 2007

Author: Javier

Source: authorstream.com

Content

IRRIGATION SCHEDULING SUPPORTED AND INTERACTIVE WATER DELIVERY SCHEDULING (IS SI WDS):  IRRIGATION SCHEDULING SUPPORTED AND INTERACTIVE WATER DELIVERY SCHEDULING (IS SI WDS) Prof. Dr. Süleyman KODAL Ahmet Zahir ERKAN Nesrin BAYSAN Gonca KARACA BİLGEN (TÜRKİYE) Slide2:  IRRIGATION When ? How much to irrigate ? Slide3:  BASIC DATA FOR IRRIGATION SCHEDULING (IS) AND WATER DELIVERY SCHEDULING (WDS) CROP (root depth, planting and harvesting date) SOIL (texture, water holding capacity) CLIMATE (crop water requirements, rainfall) WATER RESOURCE (capacity, quality) WATER-YIELD RELATIONS (deficit irrigation) IRRIGATION METHOD IRRIGATION SYSTEM REQUEST AND DECISIONS OF FARMER AND WATER USER ASSOCIATION WATER USER ASSOCIATIONS (WUAs):  WATER USER ASSOCIATIONS (WUAs) Until 2005, State Hydraulic Works (DSI) had transferred areas totaling about 1,86 million ha, which corresponds to 94% of the total area developed by DSI 91% of this transferred area (1,69 million ha) was allocated to Water User Associations (WUAs) WDS STUDIES IN WUAs:  WDS STUDIES IN WUAs Studies Before Irrigation Season: Overall Irrigation Plans B) Studies During Irrigation Season: Daily Water Delivery Programs OVERALL IRRIGATION PLANS (BEFORE IRRIGATION SEASON):  OVERALL IRRIGATION PLANS (BEFORE IRRIGATION SEASON) Prior to the start of irrigation season, irrigation information forms are collected from farmers, Irrigation water needs for crops are calculated, Canal capacities and water to be delivered to canals are identified and Rates of restriction ratios are calculated if available is not sufficient WUAs - DAILY WATER DELIVERY PROGRAMS (DURING IRRIGATION SEASON) :  WUAs - DAILY WATER DELIVERY PROGRAMS (DURING IRRIGATION SEASON) Method: Conditional Request Farmers are asked to submit their daily water requests a day before. These requests are checked against the volume of irrigation in canals. If this volume is sufficient, all requesting farmers are provided water if not, requests of some farmers are postponed to days that follow. CONDITIONAL REQUEST METHOD - PROBLEMS:  CONDITIONAL REQUEST METHOD - PROBLEMS Farmer request water, WUA gives water to the farmer, even if he irrigated his parcel a few days before (without checking crop water needs) WUA or farmer couldn’t measure the water volume, irrigation duration also depends on farmer request Time and duration of irrigation are determined arbitrary (not determined by crop water needs, soil properties, water-yield relationships etc.) Farmers use much water than they need to use. This leads “Unconscious Irrigation” UNCONSCIOUS IRRIGATION:  Unconscious Irrigation: Farmers apply irrigation either before or after it is actually due, Farmers use irrigation water either less or more than what is actually needed Problems: excessive water use, drainage problems, water table raising, soil salinity problems, sustainability problems, stress, yield reduction, decrease in crop quality, etc UNCONSCIOUS IRRIGATION Slide10:  Cotton Unconscious Irrigation Application for a Farmer (2002) Slide11:  Maraş Pepper Unconscious Irrigation Applications (2002) Slide12:  Pepper Unconscious Irrigation Applications for a Farmer (2002) Slide13:  Potatoes Unconscious Irrigation Applications for a Farmer-1 Slide14:  Potatoes Irrigation Applications for a Farmer-2 Slide15:  Important for: Water saving Sustainability of natural resources Advantages: Use basic data (crop water needs, soil characteristics etc.) IS supported Interactive (IS-WDS-IS-WDS-….) Flexible enough to cover all WUAs Provide fair results for all farmers SUPPOSED MODEL: IRRIGATION SCHEDULING SUPPORTED AND INTERACTIVE WATER DELIVERY SCHEDULING (IS SI WDS ) Slide16:  Climatic data: rainfall and other data for ETo Crop data: Planting and harvesting date, crop coefficient (kc), rooting depth, sensitivity stages, yield responce factor (ky), critical level (p), Soil data: FC, WP, initial soil water content Water resources data: capacity, adequacy and quality Irrigation method data: Water application efficiency, siphon number and discharge Irrigation system data : System type, capacity, rotation, working hours in a day Canal data: capacity, length, water conveyance efficiency Parcel data: Parcel number, area, crop, canal from which parcel takes water and distance to origin Farmer data: Education level, farmer requests WUAs decisions NECESSARY DATA FOR IS SI WDS MAIN ACTIVITIES FOR IS SI WDS :  MAIN ACTIVITIES FOR IS SI WDS CASE STUDY:  CASE STUDY TÜRKİYE GAP AREA HARRAN PLAIN FIRAT WUA UY5 CANAL GAP IRRIGATION AREAS:  GAP IRRIGATION AREAS FIRAT WUA:  FIRAT WUA Slide23:  UY5 SECONDARY AND TERTIARY CANAL SCHEMATICS (27 parcels, 189 ha) WDS STUDIES IN PILOT AREA:  WDS STUDIES IN PILOT AREA GAP-MOM WDS Study (in 1999) IS SI WDS Study (Supposed model) GAP-MOM WDS STUDY:  GAP-MOM WDS STUDY The GAP MOM (Management, Operation and Maintenance) Project was launched by the GAP (Southeastern Anatolian Project) Regional Development Administration. Under this project a WDS study was carried out in 1999 on UY5 pilot area in the Fırat WUA Slide26:  Creation of database: parcel areas, crop type, crop data, climatic factors, canals and capacities) Calculation of crop water requirements and weekly water needs (by CROPWAT software) Determination of parcel and canal water needs and whether there is any need for restriction. Determination of the number of siphons and duration of irrigation according to the parcel area (crop type in the parcel, root depth, water holding capacity of the soil are all neglected) (disadvantage) Preparation of water delivery schedules for decade WDS ACTIVITIES Slide27:  Water Delivery Schedule (UY5-1 canal) CUMA DAĞLI, 1 SİFON, 3,3 ha, 73 h 01.07.99-07:00 / 04.07.99-08:00:  CUMA DAĞLI, 1 SİFON, 3,3 ha, 73 h 01.07.99-07:00 / 04.07.99-08:00 IS SI WDS STUDY (Supposed Model):  IS SI WDS STUDY (Supposed Model) MAIN ACTIVITIES FOR IS SI WDS :  MAIN ACTIVITIES FOR IS SI WDS Slide31:  PARCEL DATABASE NET IRRIGATION WATER NEEDS (mm):  NET IRRIGATION WATER NEEDS (mm) CANAL SECTIONS:  CANAL SECTIONS CANAL DATABASE:  CANAL DATABASE REQUIRED FLOW AT THE ORIGIN OF THE CANAL AND SUFFICIENCY OF THE CAPACİTY:  REQUIRED FLOW AT THE ORIGIN OF THE CANAL AND SUFFICIENCY OF THE CAPACİTY RESTRICTION RATES FOR K8 COTTON OPTIMUM IRRIGATION SCHEDULE 13 irrigation, 1083 mm net water, Yield: 100%:  COTTON OPTIMUM IRRIGATION SCHEDULE 13 irrigation, 1083 mm net water, Yield: 100% COTTON DEFICIT IRRIGATION SCHEDULE 13 irrigation, 954 mm net water, Yield loss: 7,1% (Water saving: 129 mm, 12%), :  COTTON DEFICIT IRRIGATION SCHEDULE 13 irrigation, 954 mm net water, Yield loss: 7,1% (Water saving: 129 mm, 12%), IRRIGATION DURATION AND PARCEL WATER REQUEST BOXES :  IRRIGATION DURATION AND PARCEL WATER REQUEST BOXES Parcel Water Request Box:  Parcel Water Request Box Parcel Water Request Boxes:  Parcel Water Request Boxes Canal Water Supply Box for K8 (1.4-8.5):  Canal Water Supply Box for K8 (1.4-8.5) Time (irrigation season) (day) Canal discharge (siphon number) Capacity: 270 l/s, Losses: 15 l/s, Canal siphon number: 255/15=17 Irrigation season (day) Siphon number Slide42:  INITIAL WATER DELIVERY SCHEDULE FOR K8 Water request boxes of all parcels are placed in canal water supply box according to the irrigation time (day) If there is no place, irrigation time shifted to few days earlier or later Slide43:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide44:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide45:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide46:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide47:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide48:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide49:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide50:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide51:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide52:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide53:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide54:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide55:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide56:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide57:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide58:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide59:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide60:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide61:  PARCEL:22 WHEAT 2 SIPHONS Slide62:  PARCEL:37 WHEAT 1 SIPHON Slide63:  PARCEL:37 WHEAT 1 SIPHON Slide64:  PARCEL:37 WHEAT 1 SIPHON Slide65:  PARCEL:37 WHEAT 1 SIPHON Slide66:  PARCEL:37 WHEAT 1 SIPHON Slide67:  PARCEL:37 WHEAT 1 SIPHON Slide68:  PARCEL:37 WHEAT 1 SIPHON Slide69:  PARCEL:37 WHEAT 1 SIPHON Slide70:  PARCEL:37 WHEAT 1 SIPHON Slide71:  PARCEL:37 WHEAT 1 SIPHON Slide72:  PARCEL:37 WHEAT 1 SIPHON Slide73:  PARCEL:37 WHEAT 1 SIPHON Slide74:  PARCEL:37 WHEAT 1 SIPHON Slide75:  PARCEL:22 PARCEL:37 ALL IRRIGATIONS Slide76:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide77:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide78:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide79:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide80:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide81:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide82:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide83:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide84:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide85:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide86:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide87:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide88:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide89:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide90:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide91:  PARCEL: 3 WHEAT 4 SIPHONS Slide92:  3 PARCEL ALL IRRIGATIONS Slide93:  INITIAL WATER DELIVERY SCHEDULE FOR K8 More shift on date ? Parcel: 29:  More shift on date ? Parcel: 29 New Irrigation Schedule Some irrigation interwals are very long? Some are very short Evaluation of New Irrigation Schedule (Parcel: 29, more shift in timing):  Evaluation of New Irrigation Schedule (Parcel: 29, more shift in timing) Slide97:  Total yield red.: 9,5 % Shifted yield red : 2,4 % Water loss (drainage water): 20 mm NEW (SHIFTED) IRRIGATION SCHEDULE DEFICIT IRRIGATION SCHEDULE 13 irrigation, 954 mm net water, Yield loss: 7,1% Slide98:  EVALUATIN OF INITIAL WDS FOR ALL PARCELS: There is no timing shift for some parcels, but there is less or much for others Same situation for excessive water Same situation for stress and yield reduction INITIAL WDS: is not suitable is not fair (for all farmers) INITIAL WDS SHOULD BE REVISED First step: New irrigation schedule will be revised Second step: Initial WDS will be revised Slide99:  REVISED IRRIGATION SCHEDULE No water loss, Yield reduction: 8,0% Slide100:  REVISED IRRIGATION SCHEDULE Total yield red.: 9,5% Shifted yield red : 2,4% Water loss (drainage water): 20 mm NEW IRRIGATION SCHEDULE Total yield red.: 8,0% Shifted yield red. : 0,9% No water loss Slide101:  REVISED WATER DELIVERY SCHEDULE FOR K8 Slide103:  EVALUATIN OF REVIZED WDS FOR ALL PARCELS: Excessive water and yield reduction values for all parcels are at acceptable levels REVIZED WDS: is suitable is fair (for all farmers) Slide104:  SUGGESTIONS It is very difficult to do all these computations and arrengements manually It takes rather long time and is open to errors even in a small area and while working with small parcels. To do all these computations and arrangements quickly and without any mistake, a computer program is necessary. This software should be flexible enough to be applied in different conditions, ensure water saving (bringing water loss down to a possible minimum) and be fair. This Software should also be usable in determining water fees with respect to individual farming enterprises, its collection, follow up, budgeting and other related works in WUAs. Slide105:  A JOINT VENTURE PROJECT (ALL WASAMED COUNTRIES) SUBJECT: PRINCIPLES AND SOFTWARE OF IS SI WDS DURATION: ABOUT 3 YEARS SUPPORT: AB OR OTHER LANGUAGE: DİFFERENT LANGUAGES SPECIALITY: FLEXIBLE, FAIR 1-2 PILOT AREA FOR EACH COUNTRY RELATED PERSONS FOR EACH COUNTRY SUGGESTION Slide106:  Farmer should’t think about When and How much to irrigate. WUAs should do it. THANK YOU Slide107:  THANK YOU

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