Published on January 7, 2008
Slide1: Bering Sea Ecosystem Indicators Workshop Anchorage, Alaska January 25, 2006 Slide2: Overview of Workshop What? We seek advice from you (the scientific community and public) on priority marine ecosystem objectives, including stressors affecting both ecological and human environments. How? Following some brief introductory presentations, a short panel session will be used to stimulate your suggestions on priorities, key indicators, and specific operational objectives to be considered by future management of the Bering Sea. Slide3: Outline of this Workshop Description of Ecological Indicators project – Gordon Overview of goals and definitions of an Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM) – Gordon Specific objectives for Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAF) in the eastern Bering Sea – Diana Panel discussion highlighting key eastern Bering Sea Influences Climate Stressors – Jim Ecological Processes – Pat Social/Economics – Gunnar Feedback and questions from audience – you! Slide4: 1. Description of Ecological Indicators Project Slide5: Ecosystem Indicators Project Submitted by: North Pacific Marine Science Organization, PICES (Alex Bychkov and Skip McKinnell) PIs: Gordon Kruse (UAF), Glen Jamieson (DFO), Pat Livingston (AFSC), and Jim Overland (PMEL) Collaborator: Ian Perry (DFO) Funded by: NPRB ($100 K) Title: Integration of Ecological Indicators for the North Pacific with emphasis on the Bering Sea: A Workshop Approach Response to NPRB 2005 RFP: Host a workshop to evaluate the utility of ecosystem indicators Slide6: Project Components Involve the Bering Sea and international communities in development of a set of operational objectives for the southeast Bering Sea ecosystem pre-Workshop – Marine Science in Alaska Symposium (January 2006) pre-Workshop – North Pacific Fishery Management Council Meeting (February 2006) Workshop – Seattle (June 1-3, 2006) – 40 invited participants Slide7: Project Components (continued) Evaluate two ecosystem status reports with a goal to integrate the results and streamline the presentations: Ecosystem Considerations Chapter of SAFE PICES North Pacific Ecosystem Status Report Investigate whole-system methodologies for indicators that monitor structural changes in the marine ecosystem Identify next steps in validating indicator performance, improving the monitoring system to measure key missing indicators, and integration into predictive models Slide8: Project Products Pre-workshop activities include drafting three working papers: development of operational objectives (Gordon) evaluate two ecosystem status reports (Pat) investigate whole-ecosystem approaches (Jim) Workshop synthesis report by PIs plus PICES staff to be published in the PICES Scientific Report Series Journal article based on our experience with this project Slide9: 2. Overview of an Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM) Slide10: Similar Terms: Ecosystem Approach to Management (EAM) Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAF) Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management (EBFM) But not: Ecosystem management (EM) – direct manipulation of habitat and populations in space, structure and time with a view of optimizing long-term returns to humans Terminology Slide11: Ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) – strives to balance diverse societal objectives, by taking into account the knowledge and uncertainties of biotic, abiotic, and human components of ecosystems and their interactions and applying an integrated approach to fisheries within ecologically meaningful boundaries. Adopted by FAO Technical Consultation on Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management. EAF Definition Slide12: Integrated management (IM) – comprehensive planning/regulation of human activities towards a complex set of interacting objectives Aims at minimizing user conflicts while assuring long-term stability Uses a collaborative approach involving stakeholders Considers cumulative effects of human activities IM Definition Slide13: Ecosystem services – benefits that people receive from ecosystems Provisioning Services – products obtained: food, water, fuel, fiber, biochemicals, genetic resources Regulating Services – benefits from regulation: climate, disease, water purification Cultural Services – non-material benefits: spiritual, recreational, ecotourism, aesthetic, educational Supporting Services – necessary for production of all other ecosystem services: primary production, nutrient cycling, ecological value, sustaining conditions for life on earth More Definitions Slide14: Developing an EBFM Plan (from ICES) Scoping of Broad Issues Background Info/Analysis Setting Objectives Formulating Rules Implementation & Enforcement Monitoring Consultation with Stakeholders 3-5 yr Annual Short-term Assessment & Review Long-term Assessment & Review Slide15: Setting Objectives High-level Policy Goals (economic, social, environmental) Broad Objective for Fishery Priority Issues (level at which management can address) Operational Objectives Indicators and Performance Measures Monitoring Review and Performance Evaluation Slide16: An Example High-level Policy Goal: Maintain ecosystem structure and function Broad Objective for Fishery: Maintain populations of predators and prey within ecologically viable levels Operational Objectives: Reduce harvest rate of large predators by 25% Reduce harvest rate of forage fishes by 25% Indicators and Performance Measures: Trophic level of the catch Size spectrum of the catch Slide17: Indicator Performance measures Reference point (limit) Reference point (target) Indicators and Reference Points Two Broad Overarching Goals (Canada): Two Broad Overarching Goals (Canada) Sustainability of Human Use Conservation of Species & Habitats Social & Cultural Dimension Economic Dimension Environmental Dimension Objectives for Conservation (Canada): Objectives for Conservation (Canada) Conserve Ecosystem Components (Biodiversity) Conserve Component’s Role (Productivity) Conserve Critical Landscape Maintain Communities Conserve Physical & Chemical Properties Maintain Primary Productivity Maintain Species Maintain Populations Maintain Trophic Structure Maintain Population Generation Time Conserve Water Quality Conserve Biota Quality Potential NOAA High-level Goals Under Discussion for the U.S. : Potential NOAA High-level Goals Under Discussion for the U.S. Ensure sustainability of resources Conserve biodiversity Maintain opportunities for economic, social and cultural access to resources “Unpacking” of Operational Objectives: “Unpacking” of Operational Objectives High-level policy goal Broad objectives for each fishery Operational objectives Indicators and performance measures Lessons learned by Canada: Unpacking of conceptual objectives needs to occur as part of IM process Tendency to use available data to define objectives. Instead it is better to use objectives to guide data collection Tendency to focus on one set of objectives as it is difficult to get all relevant expertise together at once Slide22: Conclusions We seek your input into priorities, specific operational objectives, and key indicators We are not designing an EAF management plan Rather we refer to the selected management alternative from the Alaska Groundfish Fisheries Final Programmatic Supplemental Environmental Impacts Statement (PSEIS) to guide the discussions A short panel session will be used to stimulate suggestions on priorities, specific operational objectives, and key indicators to be considered by future management of the Bering Sea using the selected management alternative.