Published on October 26, 2007
Slide1: tions Spread of the H5N1 virus in Russia between 2005-2006: consequences for human activities, and adopted or considered management options Evgeny Kuznetsov, Wildlife Health Centre, All-Russia Research Institute for Nature Protection UNEP Headquarters, Gigiri, Nairobi, Kenya, 10-11 April 2006 Avian influenza outbreaks in Russia (www.rian.ru) : Avian influenza outbreaks in Russia (www.rian.ru) Looking at the map is possible to make a conclusion that H5N1 virus was transferred to the South of West Siberia (Russia) from NW China in July 2005 by wild birds (waterfowl). Q.: Why all outbreaks in Russia were distributed along the Russia-Kazakhstan frontier in spite of the territory on both side of frontier belongs to the same geographic zone – forest-steppe zone? Principal flyways in Asian Russia: Principal flyways in Asian Russia The map shows that the main flyways do not coincide with the distribution of outbreaks in the South of Siberia. Q.: Why is an outbreak “belt” situated just across the flyways? NB. Knowledge on flyways in Siberian Russia is not satisfying due to lack of information on bird ringing recoveries from China. The Russian Bird Ringing Centre has only 30 recoveries from China out of all 200,000 Centre’s databases. Only 1 ring out of 30 has been received from a duck. Avian influenza expansion in Russia (July 2005)(www.agronews.ru): Avian influenza expansion in Russia (July 2005) (www.agronews.ru) This map, published by Commersant newspaper (August 2005), shows that an initial outbreak happened on 11.07. (Novosibirsk region). The virus then spread southwards (27.07., Altai region), westwards on 22.07 (Kazakhstan) and north-westwards on 25.07 (Omsk region) and 29.07 (Tyumen region). Q.: How can this strange pattern of the spreading virus be explained? Result of Analysis and Conclusions : Result of Analysis and Conclusions Taking into account that: Outbreaks happened at the end of the breeding season which occurs two months after the spring migration; Outbreaks are situated along the border of Kazakhstan on the Russian territory; The first outbreak appeared in the nearest (from all other outbreaks) village to Novosibirsk city and then moved to different directions; Novosibirsk is a big town which may be called the only “air gate” from the Urals in the West to Baikal Lake in the East for flights from China; Direction of spreading of AI outbreaks coincides in general with main auto- and railroads in that part of Siberia; Samples of AI taken from wild birds in Novosibirsk region in June 2005 were negative; Die-off among domestic and wild waterfowl (Pochard subadultus) happened simultaneously. Logic conclusions: AI virus was introduced to the Russian territory with some goods/products by plane from China to Novosibirsk; Within Russia infected goods/products were distributed by cars/trains to different directions; Domestic birds infected young wild ducks and they died as more susceptible than adult ducks. Russian policy for AI H5N1 prevention in 2006: Russian policy for AI H5N1 prevention in 2006 According to statements of Russian veterinarian and medicine decision-makers wild birds (mainly ducks, gulls, crows) play a key role in AI distribution along Russia. So besides all well recognized and recommended methods, it was decided to prevent wild bird nesting near human settlements by frightening them off, destroying breeding habitats and culling them to minimize contacts between wild and domestic birds (www.gsen.ru). It was recommended to establish special teams consisting of hunters for implementation of the mentioned measures that now have been realized in many administrative regions of Russia. Proposal to study carrying of AI virus by wild waterfowl along flyways: Proposal to study carrying of AI virus by wild waterfowl along flyways Activities: - During goose ringing to take samples for AI virus from geese in wintering grounds (The Netherlands, Germany), from geese killed by hunters in stopover places (South of Karelia and Arkhangelsk region) and in breeding grounds during ringing and hunting (Kolguev island, Taimyr peninsula). - Visual geese monitoring for identification of geese with plastic color rings in all places along the flyway. Stakeholders: UNEP/GEF ECORA project, UNDP/GEF “Taimyr” project, The Russian-German flyway project on the Greater White-fronted Goose, Russian hunting societies, diagnostic veterinary laboratories.