Published on February 21, 2012
Kyoto Protocol in the Clouds: Kyoto Protocol in the Clouds Dražen Lučanin , Vienna University of Technology [email protected] Introduction : Introduction Cloud computing Popular (large-scale, flexible, ubiquitous) Environmental impact ICT industry - 2% of all the CO2 emissions The Kyoto protocol Attempts to stabilize CO 2 -equivalent (CO 2 e) emissions The cap-and-trade mechanism: CO 2 e = $ Goals A model integrating clouds with the Kyoto protocol Emission trading markets (ETMs): Emission trading markets (ETMs) Kyoto protocol Entities – CO 2 e emissions bellow a certain cap Bellow the cap – sell certified emission reductions (CERs) on ETMs Above the cap – must buy CERs on ETMs Current state Entities < 25 MtCO2e/year excluded Cloud providers Energy producers – highest responsibility 3 biggest losers on the EU ETM The classical emission-trading model: The classical emission-trading model The emission-trading cloud model: The emission-trading cloud model Controlling en. efficiency: Controlling en. efficiency Power usage efficiency (PUE) Infrastructure efficiency What about the computation? The applications – many, hard to influence The scheduler Existing measures Mostly a best-effort manner Save as long as the user is provisioned We want an explicit expression How much to provide? How much to save? Resource scheduling: Resource scheduling Wastage: energy & CO 2 e Penalty: SLA violations Penalty-wastage balance: P enalty-wastage balance The wastage cost (linear model): The (expected) penalty cost (linear model) : The penalty-wastage balance c wastage = E( C penal ): Usage potential: Usage potential Handy input of any R demand distribution Dependent only of the mean and variance Applicable even without Kyoto measures To exclude CO 2 e prices state c co2 =0 Potential as a h euristic function S tay close to the statistical equilibrium Integration with existing schedulers Conclusion: Conclusion A Kyoto protocol-compliant cloud model Shifting CO 2 responsibilities to cloud providers Increased chance of fulfilling the Kyoto protocol goals Energy efficiency control A wastage-penalty equilibrium Expresses energy wastage – CO2 and energy price Explicitly compare it to penalty costs Applicable in schedulers Thank you!: Thank you!