L10a 4345 Sp02

Information about L10a 4345 Sp02

Published on November 7, 2007

Author: Lassie

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Pentagonal Group:  Pentagonal Group Standard Bipolar Process HISTORY of SEMICONDUCTOR:  HISTORY of SEMICONDUCTOR Evolved rapidly over the past 50 years 1st practical analog integrated circuits appeared in 1960 Very simple, slow, and inefficient PROCESSES:  PROCESSES Standard bipolar Polysilicon-gate CMOS Analog BICMOS STANDARD BIPOLAR(1/2):  STANDARD BIPOLAR(1/2) 1st analog integrated circuit process Produced many classic devices over the years 741 op-amp 555 timer 431 voltage reference STANDARD BIPOLAR(2/2):  STANDARD BIPOLAR(2/2) Seldom used for new designs Knowledge from standard bipolar will never become obsolete Same devices, parasitic mechanisms, design tradeoffs, layout principles ESSENTIAL FEATURES(1/2):  ESSENTIAL FEATURES(1/2) Shaped to optimize the NPN at the expense of the PNP transistors NPN will outperform PNP bye more then 2:1 Early processes optimized NPN and avoided PNP transistors altogether ESSENTIAL FEATURES(2/2):  ESSENTIAL FEATURES(2/2) Employs junction isolation(JI) JI DRAWBACKS:  JI DRAWBACKS Reverse-biased JIs exhibit enough capacitance to slow the operation of many circuits High temperatures can cause significant leakage currents Unusual operating conditions can forward bias the JIs and inject minority carriers into the substrate JI ADVANTAGES:  JI ADVANTAGES Successfully fabricate most circuits Considerably cheaper than any of its alternatives Fabrication Sequence:  Fabrication Sequence Starting material Lightly doped (111) P-type substrate Parasitic PMOS transistor Thick-field threshold N-Buried Layer:  N-Buried Layer NBL mask Ion implantation or thermal deposition Arsenic or Antimony Discontinuity Epitaxial Growth:  Epitaxial Growth 25m of n-type epi 45º discontinuity propagation NBL shadow Lateral shift = thickness of epi Isolation Diffusion:  Isolation Diffusion Isolation mask Heavy boron deposition followed by high temp Oxidation occurs Deep-N+ (sinker):  Deep-N+ (sinker) Deep-N+ mask Heavy Phosphorous deposition NBL diffuses upwards Overdrive by 25% Increases doping Reduces vertical resistance Forms thick field oxide Base Implant:  Base Implant Base mask Light boron implant counterdopes n-epi Oxide grown re-used BOI – base over-isolation Emitter Diffusion:  Emitter Diffusion Emitter mask Phosphorous deposition Oxide film Dry oxidation Wet oxidation Contact:  Contact Contact mask Etched to expose bare silicon Contact OR (oxide removal) Metallization:  Metallization Metal mask Aluminum-copper-silicon alloy (2% Si & .5% Cu) 10kÅ (1.0m) thick Metal mask Protective Overcoat (PO):  Protective Overcoat (PO) Compressive nitride PO Phosphosilicate-doped glass (PSG) PO mask Special etch Base diff Emitter diff BOI P isolation Standard Bipolar Applications:  Standard Bipolar Applications Fabrication process for: Bipolar NPN transistors Two types of PNP transistors: Substrate + Lateral Diffused resistors Capacitors NPN Transistors(1/2):  NPN Transistors(1/2) Composed of: Collector, placed in the N-epi. Tank Emitter + Base, described earlier Characteristics: MOV, EBW Characteristics(2/2):  Characteristics(2/2) Maximum Operating Voltage, up to (50 – 80v) Effective Base Width: E & B width Diode formation: CB Shorted Diode B & C for anode, E for Cathode Drawbacks: Low breakdown VEBO Alternative: Act as a Zener diode NPN is the best to be designed by this process and shows a good performance Substrate PNP Transistor:  Substrate PNP Transistor Previous process can not be used to form isolated PNP transistor Requiring P-type tank Substrate as Collector Base consist of N-tank Emitter = Base diff! No Deep (N+) diff. or NBL Lateral PNP Transistor:  Lateral PNP Transistor Another substitute for the isolated PNP Collector and Emitter regions consist of Base diff. formed into an N-tank E & C are self-align as only 1 masking process forms both regions Resistors(1/4):  Resistors(1/4) Based on Characteristics Sheet resistance principle:resistance measured across a square of the material connected on opposite sides (Ω / ѝ) Diffusion causes non uniform doping 3 types of resistors: Base Resistor Emitter Resistor Pinch Resistor Base Resistor(2/4):  Base Resistor(2/4) Ranges from 150 to 250 (Ω/ѝ) Consists of a strip of B diffusion isolated by an N-tank that will reverse bias the B epi. junction Emitter Resistor(3/4):  Emitter Resistor(3/4) A strip of E diff. Isolated by B diff. enclosed within the N-tank B region to reverse bias E-B junc. E sheet resistance less than 10 (Ω/ѝ) Pinch Resistor (4/4):  Pinch Resistor (4/4) Combination of B & E diffusions Resistor’s body consist of B diff. below the E plate (Pinched Base) Thin and lightly doped and resistance may exceed 5000 (Ω/ѝ) Capacitor (1/2):  Capacitor (1/2) Thick oxide layers prevent fabricating capacitors, except when fabricating the Junction Capacitor where the depletion region of a base-emitter junction exhibits a capacitance of 0.8fF/μm2 . The emitter plate must be biased positively with respect to the base plate to maintain a reverse bias across the emitter-base junction. Capacitor (2/2):  Capacitor (2/2) The Base diffusion overlaps the Emitter diffusion and both are placed in a common tank. Process Extensions:  Process Extensions Up-down Isolation Double-level Metal Schottky diodes High Sheet Resistors Super-beta Transistors Up-down Isolation (1/2) :  Up-down Isolation (1/2) Up-down Isolation (2/2):  Up-down Isolation (2/2) Advantages Saves space over Top-down isolation Up to 15-20% of die area Disadvantages PBL implant dose limited Double-level Metal:  Double-level Metal Advantages Reduces die area by 30% over single-level metal Allows component standardization Disadvantages Requires two extra masks: vias and metal-2 P-Buried Layer (PBL) requires additional steps Costly Schottky Diodes (1/3):  Schottky Diodes (1/3) Silicidation and refractory barrier metallization Requires additional masking step Schottky Diodes (2/3):  Schottky Diodes (2/3) Schottky Diodes (3/3):  Schottky Diodes (3/3) High Sheet Resistors:  High Sheet Resistors Compensates for base diffusion and pinch resistor High Sheet Resistor:  High Sheet Resistor Super-beta Transistors:  Super-beta Transistors Beta increased by narrowing base width Betas of 1000 to 3000 Reference:  Reference The Art of Analog Layout, Alan Hastings

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