l5 mike

Information about l5 mike

Published on February 25, 2008

Author: Sebastiana

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Climatology Lecture 5:  Climatology Lecture 5 Michael Palmer Room 119, Atmospheric Physics [email protected] ‘Vertical Motion in the Atmosphere’ …Continued... Slide2:  Temperature Dry Example: Absolute Stability Surface Temp = 34 oC Parcel Temp Environ Temp Stable Air No convection No Rain Slide3:  Temperature Dry Example: Absolute Stability Surface Temp = 34 oC Parcel Temp Environ Temp Stable Air No convection No Rain Slide4:  Temperature Moist Example: Absolute Instability Surface Temp = 34 oC Parcel Temp Environ Temp Unstable Air Convection Rain Condensation Level Slide5:  Temperature Wet Example: Conditional Instability Level of free convection Condensation Level Unstable Air Convection Rain Vertical Motion:  Vertical Motion Potential Instability Absolute Stability Topographically forced stable cloud Pollution dispersion climatology Potential Instability:  Potential Instability Conditional instability involves convective ascent of parcels of air Potential instability involves large scale ascent of layers of air Instability is potential since the air is stable until lifted by an appropriate amount Potential Instability may occur if a layer of air is very moist at the bottom but very dry aloft Slide8:  Temperature Parcel Temp Environ Temp Stability depends on ELR Slide9:  Temperature Parcel Temp Environ Temp Stability depends on ELR Slide10:  Temperature Z Slide11:  Temperature Z A B A’ B’ Old ELR New ELR Slide12:  Temperature Z A B Slide13:  Temperature Z A A’ Slide14:  Temperature Z A B A’ B’ Slide15:  Temperature Z A B A’ B’ Slide16:  Temperature Z A B A’ B’ Stable More unstable Potential Instability:  Potential Instability The initial lapse rate in the layer AB is stable On lifting of the entire layer, the base reaches condensation quickly, since it is moist - the slower rate of cooling (SALR) is applicable - but the top of the layer cools at the DALR The new layer A’B’ is unstable for rising parcels. Vertical Motion:  Vertical Motion Potential Instability Absolute Stability Topographically forced stable cloud Pollution dispersion climatology Slide19:  Absolute Stability ?? Slide20:  Absolute Stability Slide21:  Absolute Stability Slide22:  Temperature Z Environmental lapse rate Dry adiabatic lapse rate Slide23:  Temperature Z 1 Environmental lapse rate Dry adiabatic lapse rate Slide24:  Temperature Z 1 Environmental lapse rate Dry adiabatic lapse rate 2 Slide25:  Temperature Z 1 Environmental lapse rate Dry adiabatic lapse rate 2 3 Slide26:  Temperature Z 1 Environmental lapse rate Dry adiabatic lapse rate 2 3 4 Slide27:  Temperature Z 1 Environmental lapse rate Dry adiabatic lapse rate 2 3 4 5 Slide28:  Absolute Stability 1 2 3 4 Slide29:  Absolute Stability Slide30:  Absolute Stability Air hotter and drier on leeward side Slide35:  H E I G H T TEMPERATURE Slide36:  H E I G H T TEMPERATURE Subsidence Inversion Slide37:  H E I G H T TEMPERATURE Surface Radiation Inversion Subsidence Inversion Slide38:  H E I G H T TEMPERATURE Early Morning Slide39:  H E I G H T TEMPERATURE Early Morning Daytime Slide43:  Γ (dashed) – DALR Solid - ELR (Unstable) (Near neutral stability) Stack Height:  Stack Height Statistical characteristics of surface and non-surface inversion layers: depth, strength, frequency longer stacks: increased eddy diffusion effective stack height: H = hs + dh hs= physical height of stack dh = f (Stability, wind speed,stack exit velocity, stack diameter, temperature of emission, emission rate) Readings for today’s lecture:  Readings for today’s lecture Barry and Chorley 1997 p76-86 Briggs et al. 1997 Fundamentals of the Physical Environment p78-88 Henderson-Sellers and Robinson 1999 p56-74 Linacre and Geerts 1997 Climates and Weather Explained p127-145 McIlveen 1992 p109-139 Oke, 1990 Boundary Layer Climates

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