Landmine 2004

Information about Landmine 2004

Published on November 19, 2007

Author: yilmar

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Landmines:  Landmines Catherine Thomasson, MD Oregon Physicians for Social Responsibility History of Landmines:  History of Landmines First used in 15th century in Agincourt WWII was first major use. 300,000 Anti-tank mines were deployed. Because they were easily removed and re-deployed anti-personnel mines were developed and used to prevent removal of anti-tank mines. Land Mines:  Land Mines Estimated 50-110 million landmines buried in 68 countries. They kill or wound about 500 civilians a week, or 26,000 a year. Cambodia and Afghanistan: One Out of Every 230 People is an Amputee.:  Cambodia and Afghanistan: One Out of Every 230 People is an Amputee. Land Mines are Indiscriminant:  Land Mines are Indiscriminant Over 75-85% affected are civilians Children sustain more injury Landmines: $3-$75 to Plant; $350-$1,000 to Remove. :  Landmines: $3-$75 to Plant; $350-$1,000 to Remove. Landmines:  Landmines Blast Mines are hand-laid or scattered from the air and explode from pressure. Fragmentation Mines are surface-laid often with trip-wires. The explosion projects hundreds of fragments (similar to a shotgun) over a wide area. Directional Mines are designed to blow fragments in a certain direction. Mine Clearing:  Mine Clearing There are three primary types of mine clearance techniques Manual mine clearance Mine detection dogs Mechanical mine clearance Manual Mine Clearance:  Manual Mine Clearance Metal detectors and prods search the ground for landmines an inch at a time. One month to train The most reliable way to meet humanitarian mine clearance standards of a 99.6% clearance rate. 2000 deminers clear 10-15 square km/yr www.bme.jhu.edu/~thrish/lrrp.htm Mine Detection Dogs:  Mine Detection Dogs Smell the explosives 18 months to train Clear terrain 5x faster Less injuries to humans Few dogs get injured No coordinated training centers Mechanical Mine Clearance :  Mechanical Mine Clearance Heavy machinery rolls over ground to explode the mines. Can cause environmental damage Expensive, less reliable and requires flat terrain Level One Survey - Identifying Mined Areas :  Level One Survey - Identifying Mined Areas Checking on injuries, local reports and local governmental officials Locating minefield maps Prioritizing fields to clear Level 2-Demining and Destroying Landmines:  Level 2-Demining and Destroying Landmines Choosing method Sealing area Detonation on site or remote Remote needed if dogs are used On site better to reduce injuries Quality Assurance Level Three Survey - Handing Over Cleared Land :  Level Three Survey - Handing Over Cleared Land Clearance certificate given to local government International Standards for Humanitarian Mine Clearance Operations. 1400 groups form International Coalition to Ban Landmines:  1400 groups form International Coalition to Ban Landmines Won Nobel prize in 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines Landmine Survivor Network Vietnam Veterans of America-Bobby Muller US Campaign to Ban Landmines coordinated by Physicians for Human Rights By August 2004, 145 countries had signed and 143 had ratified a treaty to ban landmines. The United States has not signed.:  By August 2004, 145 countries had signed and 143 had ratified a treaty to ban landmines. The United States has not signed. Ottawa Treaty :  Ottawa Treaty Prohibits Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of antipersonnel mines Destruction of mines in 4 years Mine clearing in 10 years Clause on international assistance. Ottawa Treaty Outcomes:  Ottawa Treaty Outcomes No evidence of landmine use by Treaty signers. 61 countries have destroyed 50 million antipersonnel mines from 1997-2003 80% of destroyed stockpile was to comply with the Mine Ban Treaty. Contributions of $1 billion given and $190 mil. raised by affected countries Ottawa Treaty Outcomes:  Ottawa Treaty Outcomes Export of landmines has nearly ceased even among non-treaty countries (U.S. reaffirmed moratorium). Landmine producing countries has decreased from 55 to 14. Only 6 countries reported using landmines in 2002-2003. Myanmar and Russia were only 2 countries using mines regularly. Fewer non-state actors using (11 down from 14) Current Challenges:  Current Challenges 47 countries have not signed: including the US, Russia and China, Iran, Cuba, Syria, Pakistan, India, and Turkey, Israel and the Koreas. Over 200 million landmines still stockpiled India & Pakistan laid extensive new mines in 2001 Myanmar and Chechnya (Russia) have on-going use, India, Pakistan, Nepal all acknowledged use US Position:  US Position Clinton planned to sign Treaty in 2006 if alternative weaponry was available. Current administration has attended no landmine meetings. Dept of Defense recommends not signing. 1992 US law says no mine transfers –reaffirmed in 2003 US claims it needs mines in Korea in spite of 9 former generals countering the policy Slide22:  People’s Mine Ban Treaty www.peoplestreaty.org Pressure to Join Treaty:  Pressure to Join Treaty 9 former generals signed onto the campaign including Schwarzkopf US Campaign to Ban Landmines for links to interactive programs for children, educators, physicians and others. www.banminesusa.org www.landminesurvivors.org

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