Published on January 15, 2008
Slide1: Language, Motor, and Social Skill Development in Infants By: Martha Peláez, Ph.D. Florida International University Slide2: Language Development “An infant’s cry is the baby’s first use of language. The Cry begins as a reflex and emerges as a major means of communicating discomfort and distress.” (Widerstrom,A.H., Mowder,B.A., & Sandall, S.R.) Slide3: Infant Scale of Communicative Intent (ISCI) Birth – 1 mo. Some vocalizations Nasalized vowels Begins to cry for attention 1–2 mo. Begins differentiated cry Gurgles response to stimulation Produces short vowel sounds Cries for social stimulation 2-3 mos. Definitely coos Makes glottal-velar consonants Takes turns when communicating Alerts to people Source: From “An Assessment Tool: The Infant Scale of Communicative Intent” by Gail Karen Sacks, M.A., CCC-SP, & Edna Carter Young, Ph.D., CCCI-SP, 1982, Update Pediatrics, pp. 1-4. Adapted by permission. This material is in the public domain. Language Development Cont. (ISCI) Slide4: Language Development Cont. (ISCI) 3-4 mos. Initiates babbling Chuckles- sort of vocalized laugh Cries for attention Vocalizes feelings of pleasure 4-5 mos. Vocalizes laughter Vocalizes eagerness Cries if play disrupted Vocalizes feelings of pleasure 5-6 mos. Vocalizes “ah-goo” Imitates own noises Vocalizes to interrupt others Slide5: 6-7 mos. Imitates familiar sounds Expresses anger by sound Initiates social contact Tries to imitate facial expressions 7-8 mos. Repeats babbling Imitates sound sequence Imitates gestures Vocalizes satisfaction 8-9 mos. Shakes head “no-no” Combines two or more consonants Shouts for attention Language Development Cont. (ISCI) Slide6: 9-10 mos. Intentionally communicates Gestures with vocalizations Uses sounds to call others 10-11 mos. Vocabulary with two words or approx. Uses objects as tools Laughs at own sounds Attempts to label objects 11-12 mos. May recognize words as symbols Uses “ma-ma” with meaning Imitates new sounds Imitates tones of adult Language Development Cont. (ISCI) Slide7: 12-13 mos. Uses three to four meaningful words Uses sounds for vocal play Imitates animal sounds Wakes with a “call” 13-14 mos. Has six-word vocabulary Points to desired object Tries to sing Imitates other children 14-15 mos. Has up to eight-word vocabulary Initiates give and take Uses modifiers Language Development Cont. (ISCI) Slide8: 15-16 mos. Starts using double syllable words May label pictures Pulls at wet pants/diaper Pulls adult hand to show something 16-17 mos. Uses extended phrases for vocal play Uses differentiated object names Gradually increases vocabulary May ask “what that?” 17-18 mos. Has up to twenty-word vocabulary Ask for “more” Makes successive single-word utterances Language Development Cont. (ISCI) Slide9: Talk, read, and sing to infants - they learn from everything they see and hear even in the first stages of life. Take your baby to the park, zoo, and the store with you. Bring her attention to objects, signs, and people. Always make books a part of your baby's toy selection, even if he enjoys handling books more than being red to. Recommended Parental Behaviors Slide10: As your child grows, point out pictures of objects and offer their names. Eventually, your child will be able to name the pictures, too. Encourage associations between symbols and their meaning - as they get closer to toddlerhood, children may begin to recognize familiar signs for products and logos for cereal or fast food restaurants. Recommended Parental Behaviors Slide11: Sentence length vs. complexity Maximum sentence length Sentence complexity Taken from Dr. Michael Thomas’ lecture: Cognitive and Language Development Slide12: Comprehension vs. production (parental ratings) Words understood Words produced Taken from Dr. Michael Thomas’ lecture: Cognitive and Language Development Slide13: Inside-out vs. Outside-in Theories Taken from Dr. Michael Thomas’ lecture: Cognitive and Language Development Slide14: Commonly Used Screening Tests Slide15: Motor Development What should your baby be doing? Slide16: Motor Development Continued There are two skills taken into consideration when assessing motor developmental skills. These skills are: Gross Motor - Locomotor Skills Fine Motor – Manipulative Skills Slide17: Newborn 6 weeks 6 weeks Prone Pelvis high Knees under abdomen Prone Pelvis flat Hips extended Prone Chin up Intermittently off couch Gross Motor - Locomotor Skills (Pivoting) Motor Development Continued Slide18: 3 months 6 months 10 months Prone Weight on forearms Chest well off couch Prone Weight on hands Arms extended Creep position – hands and knees Gross Motor - Locomotor Skills (Pivoting) Motor Development Continued Slide19: 1 year Gross Motor - Locomotor Skills (Pivoting) Motor Development Continued Walking like a bear on soles of feet and hands Slide20: Gross Motor - Locomotor Skills (Sitting) Motor Development Continued Newborn 4 weeks 8 weeks Held sitting Fully rounded back Held sitting Lifts head up intermittently Held sitting Back straightening Head up Slide21: Gross Motor - Locomotor Skills (Sitting) Motor Development Continued 4 months 6 months 8 months Held sitting Steady Back nearly straight Sits with hands forward for support Sitting steadily No support Slide22: Gross Motor - Locomotor Skills Motor Development Continued RESULT 11 months Sits and Pivots Slide23: Motor Development Continued Slide24: Development of Social Skills “It is important to remember that, during infancy, children are learning social skills primarily from their parents--children's first teachers.” (Harrington, R.) Slide25: Source: From “Infant Development at Risk” by Anne H. Widerstrom, Barbara A. Mowder, & Susan R. Sandall with invited contributors from Robert E. Nickel, Helen Harrison, and Harriet Able-Boone, 1997, pp. 44-45. (Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters, & Wall, 1978) Ainsworth’s Theory of Social Attachment Slide26: Piaget and Vygotsky Slide27: “Stages” in theories of development Slide28: Piaget Relied upon clinical method, using probing questions to uncover what children understood Was interested in errors children make and the possibility that these were not random Searched for a systematic pattern in the production of children’s errors Worked towards logically, internally consistent explanation of children’s errors Studied how knowledge is acquired and developed theory of “genetic epistemology” Studied thought and language in pre-schoolers and early school-age children Believed that intelligence arises progressively in the baby’s repetitive activities Described how concepts of space, time, causes, and physical objects arise in development Investigated the beginnings of fantasy and symbolism in infancy Outlined a theory that states that the precursors of thinking and language lie in the elementary actions, perceptions, and imitations of babies Influenced by evolutionary theory: child has to ‘adapt’ to environment by altering cognitive structures Slide29: Piaget’s stages of development Mechanism of change: adaptation (Assimilation + Accommodation) Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development Slide30: Piaget’s stages of development Sensorimotor Stage (6 substages): Modification of reflexes (0-1 month) 2. Primary circular reactions (1-4 months) 3. Secondary circular reactions (4-8 months) 4. Coordination of secondary schemes (8-12 months) 5. Tertiary circular reactions (12-18 months) 6. Mental combinations (18-24 months) Slide31: Evaluation of Piagetian Theory General framework influential Much of it wrong in detail Notion of domain-general stages dubious, notion of general purpose cognitive processes also challenged Under-estimated abilities of infants Theory too impoverished to explain language development No obvious explanation for increase in "power" of cognitive system with age (e.g., how can child learn to be cleverer?) Little emphasis on social or emotion factors, or on abnormal development / developmental disorders Slide32: Vygotsky Concerned with historical and social aspects of human behaviour that make human nature unique Social and cultural factors are important in the development of intelligence Speech carries culture in that it stores the history of social experience and is a “tool” for thought People are different from animals because they use tools to create artefacts that change the conditions of life There is a close link between the acquisition of language and development of thinking Gave prominence to the importance of social interaction in development as it influences language and thought Does not deal with fixed stages of development but describes “leading activities” typical of certain age periods around which intellectual development is organised Slide33: Social Learning: Findings of Peláez et al. Social Behavior as Reinforcers Proximity- at moment of nearness, the mother Attention and Mands- verbal behavior on behalf of the parent Affection- behavior that elicit feelings hugs, kisses, smiles, pats, nuzzling. tickling Observational Learning Operant Approach Slide34: Social Learning: Findings of Peláez et al. The Origins of Social Phenomena Attachment & Separation (as early as 6 mos.) The Power of Touch Two Types of Touch (massage vs. poking) Fear Fear of the Dark and Strangers Social Referencing Conditioning of Meaningless Arbitrary Cues Conditioning of Joyful & Fearful Originally Meaningful Maternal Cues Slide35: Social Learning: Findings of Peláez et al. Sibling Rivalry & Jealousy Social Cognition & Environment Carrying Position Affects Infant Behavior Prosocial Behaviors in Early Childhood Empathy The Development of Morality Slide36: The End!