Published on April 9, 2008
Contribution of the Social Economy in the Renewal of Social Policies and Practices in the Area of Welfare to Work (1983-2003): Contribution of the Social Economy in the Renewal of Social Policies and Practices in the Area of Welfare to Work (1983-2003) By Gérald Larose, Yves Vaillancourt, Geneviève Shields and Muriel Kearney Laboratoire de recherche sur les pratiques et les politiques sociales (LAREPPS) and CURA in Social Economy, Ecole de travail social, UQAM « National Forum on Welfare to Work: the Next Generation », St-John’s, Newfoundland & Labrador November 16-18, 2003 Note: Copies of our Paper are Available in French ! Outline: Outline I-Objectives of our paper II-Definition of the social economy III Historical background IV- Mapping the Social Economy presence in Welfare to Work Practices V- Issues Objectives of our Paper: Objectives of our Paper To examine «the Quebec exception» (Gorlick and Brethour,1998) in Welfare to Work (W2W) reforms in Canada This «exception» refers to the important contribution of nonprofit organisations (or Third Sector or Social Economy) in W2W practices in Quebec with regard to the rest of Canada and North America Note that the Quebec case is less an «exception» with regard to Europe! (see: Spear, Defourny, Favreau and Laville, 2001) Openess to social economy contributions within a «plural economy» perspective (State/Market/SE) What is the Social Economy About?: What is the Social Economy About? Our definition of social economy initiatives (Chantier de l ’Économie sociale, 1996, 2000) has a Belgium inspired focus on values: Services to members and community, not profit oriented Management independant of government Democratic decision-making based on Participation of users and workers (Double Empowerment) Multi-stakesholders Principle (vs Shareholders) People have priority over capital A broad definition including CBOs, CED, Coops, NGOs, social enterprises, advocacy groups, etc. Old and New Social Economy =120,000 jobs in QC and not only jobs in «an economy of the poors » ! A Trademark of the SE for Public Policy Reforms is to bring more democracy and more quality: A Trademark of the SE for Public Policy Reforms is to bring more democracy and more quality Why are SE organizations distinctive from the public and market sectors? Mission, rules and values favor: Democratic decision-making Double empowerment (users and workers): Participation of citizens-users of human services More employee control and responsibility in a democratic working place Double empowerment means cooperation between users + producers + managers = more quality in « post-welfarist » human services Citizens-Users are social policy co-producers (and not only social policy takers or receivers)! Historical Background (1): The turning point of the 1980s: the social movements move toward a new form of economic engagement: Historical Background (1): The turning point of the 1980s: the social movements move toward a new form of economic engagement The economic recession of 1981-1982 = multidimensional crisis which brings new questions to governments and social movements Trade Unions discover economic militancy (involvement in Investment Funds, local development projects + coalitions about full employment, employability, labor market training, etc.) Components of the Trade Union, community, women and environmental movements get involved in local development practices A Community Economic Development (CED) Wave New generation of CBOs develop innovative practices in the W2W domain to fill public service gaps for people at risk of unemployment (i.e. people with social vulnerabilities) This brings debates+tensions within social movements This brings tensions & debates between SE, State and Market Historical Background (2): The Socio-economic summit of 1996: Public Acknowledgement of the Social Economy: Historical Background (2): The Socio-economic summit of 1996: Public Acknowledgement of the Social Economy Not a traditionnal tripartist socio-economic summit only between State, Business, and Trade Unions Participation of a fourth group of actors coming from the civil society (SE, CBOs etc.) Acknowledgement of the social economy sector with a contribution of the Chantier de l ’Économie sociale A context of budget constraints and Zero Deficit Income security Reform + transferts of Federal training programs and budgets toward Emploi-Quebec Idea of a «guichet unique» (single window) in Quebec for all training programs for unemployed people (connected with E.I. and Income security programs) Mapping of Public Institutions connected with W2W + Labour Market Policies & Practices : Mapping of Public Institutions connected with W2W + Labour Market Policies & Practices 1998: from SQDM to Emploi-Quebec At the Quebec national level: the Board of the Labour Market Partners [CPMT] (State, Business, Trade Unions and Community Organizations) with a mandate to provide the Minister with policy proposals At the Regional Level: 17 Regional Councils of Labour Market Partners [CRPMT] At the local Level: 150 Local Centers of Employment (CLE) with traditionnal democratic governance: no board and a connection with 119 Local Centers of Development (CLD) with a non traditional mode of governance, e.g. boards with municipality + civil society representatives) Mapping of Social Economy organisations involved in W2W practices + policies in 2003 : Mapping of Social Economy organisations involved in W2W practices + policies in 2003 Community economic development network 17 CDEC: Quebec CED Corporations 57 SADC: Federal Community Future Corporations (CFC) 33 SSMO: Specialized Services of Main-d ’Œuvre 106 Carrefours Jeunesse Emploi (CJE) 48 Clubs de recherche d ’emploi (CRE) 46 CBOs members of RQUODE (ex.: Accès-Cible) CBOs members the Coalition COCDMO 38 «entreprises d ’insertion» (Business Training) members of the Collectif des entreprises d ’insertion 19 Advocacy groups for the rights of Welfare users-citizens + « Collectif pour un Québec sans pauvreté » Social Economy Enterprises in Domestic Homecare Services: 80% of the 5,000 new jobs created = for Income Support People Conclusion: Some Issues: Conclusion: Some Issues The kind of relationship between the State (Emploi-Québec) and the Social Economy Sector? Partnership (e.g. a sharing of power ) ? Contracting Out ? The social economy model of social intervention with the unemployed = making room for the participation of users and workers A pattern to be expanded in the public sector and the private sector to renew and democratize the W2W practices and policies? Appendix: In Unisson (1998, p. 24), a federal / Provincial paper on Disability: Appendix: In Unisson (1998, p. 24), a federal / Provincial paper on Disability «Opportunities for enhancing the integration and employment of persons with disabilities also could be explored through support for community economic development (CED) and self-employment. CED is an approach to local economic development that combines economic and social goals…» Comment: What is relevant for CED is also relevant for Social Economy in general with the perspective of building healthier working places! The contribution of SE initiative in W2W practices of people at risk of unemployment and exclusion is showing the way to the Public and Private Sectors!