Lassi,Butter , Ghee, PaneerChhana, , Cheese

Information about Lassi,Butter , Ghee, PaneerChhana, , Cheese

Published on June 26, 2012

Author: mashrafpaul



PowerPoint Presentation: LASSI Dr. Mohammad Ashraf Paul Division of Livestock Products Technology Faculty of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry SKUAST-K Alusteng, Ganderbal Kashmir PowerPoint Presentation: Lassi refers to desi buttermilk, a by-product of butter ( makkhan ) manufacture. Whole milk curd beaten up to be served as beverage also called Lassi syn. Chhas ; matha , Gurus.. Nutritive value: Milk proteins ,Phospholipids - excellent beverage Yield: depends on dilution at time of churning PowerPoint Presentation: H 2 0 TS Fat SNF Protein Lactose Ash Lactic acid 96.2 3.8 0.8 3.0 1.3 1.2 0.4 0.44 Composition (%) : PowerPoint Presentation: Uses As a beverage after addition of ice, sugar or salt and other flavors ii. As a starter culture iii. As a coagulant iv. Used traditionally during maush krear / kalari production PowerPoint Presentation: BUTTER Dr. Mohammad Ashraf Paul Division of Livestock Products Technology Faculty of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry SKUAST-K Alusteng, Ganderbal Kashmir PowerPoint Presentation: PFA: Product obtained from Cow or Buffalo milk or combination thereof or from cream or curd obtained from Cow or Buffalo milk or combination thereof with or without the addition of common salt, annato or carotene as a coloring matter . It should be free from other animal or plant fat sources. It must contain : Fat ≥ 80 % Curd ≤ 1.5 % Common salt ≤ 3.0 % PowerPoint Presentation: Diacetyl may be added upto 4 ppm CaOH ~ 0.2% NaHCo 3 ~ 0.2% SPP ~ 0.2% Composition (%) Fat : 80.2 H 2 O: 16.3 Salt: 2.5 Curd: 1.0 Standard composition - 80% Fat, 16% H 2 o PowerPoint Presentation: Method of Butter manufacture Grading Weighing Sampling Testing Receiving milk Receiving Cream Pre heating (35-40 0 C) Separation Neutralization cream Standardization (35-40% fat) Pasteurization 82-88 0 C/ Vacreation Cooling (20-22 0 C) Ripening @0.5-2% 20-22 0 C/15-16h Cooling (5-10 0 C) Ageing (5-10 0 C for 2-4h or15-16h) Packaging,Storage -23 to -29 0 C Washing, Salting & working Churning PowerPoint Presentation: Overrun: Increase in the amount of butter made from a given amount of fat, caused by the presence of moisture, curd, salt etc. in addition to fat. The difference between the number of kg of butter made and the number of kg of butter fat actually churned is known as overrun and expressed as % value. It is due to the presence of non fatty constituents e.g. Moisture, salt, curd , small amounts of lactic acid and ash in addition to butter fat. it is financially, as well as technically important as it is a source of profit and helps to check the efficiency of butter production operations. % OR = B-F x100 F Where , B= butter made (kg) F = Fat in churn (kg) PowerPoint Presentation: Maximum legitimate permissible/obtainable OR = 25% Factors affecting OR: Accuracy of weighing milk received. Accuracy of sampling Accuracy of testing for fat PowerPoint Presentation: GHEE Dr. Mohammad Ashraf Paul Division of Livestock Products Technology Faculty of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry SKUAST-K Alusteng, Ganderbal Kashmir PowerPoint Presentation: Synonyms: Butter oil, Clarified butter fat Pure clarified fat derived solely from milk or from desi butter or from cream to which no colouring matter is added Composition: Fat – 99- 99.5 % H 2 o - 0.5% PowerPoint Presentation: Centrifugal separation Fermentation Cream Ripened/ unripened Churning Creamery butter Milk Curd Churning Desi butter Ghee Direct clarification Continuous Pre- stratification Cooling & Granulation Method of Manufacture Packaging PowerPoint Presentation: Methods of Manufacture(Based on raw material) : Desi Method Milk fermented , Curd churned into Desi butter-Clarified Creamery butter method Direct cream method Methods of Manufacture(Based on Processing) : Direct clarification method Pre- Stratification Butter heated to 80-85 0 C/ 15-30 min 3 Layers formed Floating particles Fat Butter milk (60-70% SNF+ 80% H 2 o) Bottom layer removed mechanically,Rest heated to usual clarifying temp. (110-120 0 C) Continuous Automatic scraping etc. PowerPoint Presentation: CHEESE Dr. Mohammad Ashraf Paul Division of Livestock Products Technology Faculty of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry SKUAST-K Alusteng, Ganderbal Kashmir PowerPoint Presentation: PFA Definition : Cheese (hard) is the product obtained by draining after the coagulation of milk with a harmless milk coagulating agent, under the influence of harmless bacterial culture. It shall not contain any ingredients not found in milk, except coagulating agent, sodium Chloride, calcium chloride (an hydrous salt) ≤ 0.02% by weight, annatto or carotene colour may contain certain emulsifiers and/or stabilizers, namely citric acid, sodium citrate or sodium Salts of ortho phosphoric acid and poly phosphoric acid ≤ 0.2% by weight. wax used for covering the outer surface should not contain anything harmful to the health. In case, the wax is colored, only permitted food colour may be used Hard cheese shall contain ≤ 43% moisture and ≥ 42% FDM. Hard cheese may contain 0.1% sorbic acid or its sodium potassium or calcium salts or 0.1% of nisin. PowerPoint Presentation: Classification On the basic of moisture & ripening: Hard (26-50% moisture ) Internally ripened, no added ripening m.o . e.g. Parmesan, Cheddar, Double Gloucester Internally ripened , added ripening m.o e.g. Emmental . Internally ripened, secondary surface ripening by mould e.g. Blue Cheshire Semi hard (42-52% moisture) Internally ripened, no added ripening m.o . e.g. Lancashire, Edam b) Internally ripened, ripening mould added e.g. stilton, Roquefort, Gorgonzola. PowerPoint Presentation: Semi- soft (45-55% moisture) Surface ripened, ripening bacteria added e.g. Limburger, Port du salut Soft (48-80% moisture) Surface repined, ripening mould added e.g. Brie, Camembert Un ripened as cottage, coulommier V. Others Brined varieties Whey cheeses Ethnic cheeses etc. PowerPoint Presentation: Add starter Milk Technology: Common Procedure for the manufacture common cheese varieties Incubate Add Acid (Acid Set) Add Rennet (Rennet Set) scal d Stir Mill Drain Texture curd Salt Drain Cut Hoop Press Salt Pack Ripen Pack Un ripened soft e.g. Gervaise , Lactic, Ricotta Ripened soft e.g. Camembert, Brie,Neufchatel Ripen Bacterial smear & Pack Internal mould & Pack Bacteria & Pack Smear ripened semi- soft e.g. limburger ,Munster, Bel paese Mould ripened semi hard e.g. Stilton ,Roquefort, Gorgonzola Bacterial ripened , hard & semi- hard e.g. cheddar Emmental ,Gouda PowerPoint Presentation: Starter micro organisms LAB  Commonly added to milk Key role: Acid production Lactic Acid responsible for fresh acid flavor of un ripened cheeses & Texturization of curd Prodution of volatile flavor compounds viz., diacetyl , aldehydes etc. Synthesis of protolytic & lipolytic enzymes involved in the ripening of cheese Supression of pathogenic & spoilage m.o Controls moisture. PowerPoint Presentation: Cheddar cheese Receive milk (free from antibiotics, bacteriophages & inhibitory Substances ) Filtration/Clarification Standardize milk (C/F=0.68 - 0.7 ) Pasteurize (63 0 C/30min or 72 0 C/15s) Homogenization ; Addition of CaCl 2 (optional) Add starter (30 0 C) {1-2% (0.7%)} Adding colour (30-200ml(1:20)/1000kg milk) Add rennet (30-31 0 C) @ 15-20ml 100lit milk (1: 20-40) Coagulation/ setting / curd formation (30 -31 0 C/45-50min) Cutting PowerPoint Presentation: cooking/ scalding (40 0 C) Stirring (40 0 C/45-60 min.) Draining Cheddaring (packing, turning, piling ,repiling the cubes – Chicken Breast Characteristics) Milling (Cutting of Cheddered curd Into small pieces ) Salting (@1–2%,18-20% brine) Hooping (30-32 0 C) Dressing Pressing Drying (12 – 16 0 C/24h;50%RH) Parafinning Curing/maturing/Ripening(0 – 10 0 C) PowerPoint Presentation: Milling Significance: H 2 0 expulsion Salt distribution Prepare curd for pressing De- odourization Cooling of curd Uniformity in composition Salting Significance: Improves Flavor ,body &texture and Keeping quality Efficient removal of whey Hardening shrinking of curd Prevents excess Lactic acid formation Prevents undesirable fermentation PowerPoint Presentation: Chemical Changes during ripening (10-15 0 C;85-90% RH (blue vein cheese-96%) /2 weeks to 2 years) Cheese Proteolysis Lipolysis Glycolysis Caseins Fatty acids (Ac etic,butyric,caproic ) Lactic acid High MW polypeptides low MW polypeptides Amino acids Amines Sulpheral (H2 s methane etccompds ) NH 4 Aldelydes Alcohols kite acids PowerPoint Presentation: Chemical Changes cntd….. Amines Sulphur Compounds (H 2 S methanethiol etc.) NH 4 Aldehydes, Alcohols, keto acids etc. PowerPoint Presentation: Microbiological Changes during ripening Microbial growth Co 2 production Characteristic eye formation in Swiss cheese Blue Vein Cheese(Roquefort, Gorgonzola ,Stilton, Blue cheshire etc.) Air allowed inside with piercing needles Inoculation with P.roqueforti-Blue mycelial growth-blue veins PowerPoint Presentation: PANEER/ CHANNA PFA definition: Product obtained from cow or buffalo milk or a combination thereof by precipitation with sour Milk,lactic acid or citric acid.It should not contain >70% moisture and milk fat content should not be < 50% of dry matter(Skim milk paneer 13%of dry matter). Panir refers to the indigenous variety of rennet-coagulated,small sized,soft cheese .Examples are:Surati panir,Bandal cheese/Dacca cheese PowerPoint Presentation: Average Composition (%) H 2 0 TS Fat Protein Lactose Ash 55-60 40-45 20-24 17-20 2.0 2.0 PowerPoint Presentation: PANEER/ CHANNA MANUFACTURE Receiving milk Filtration/Clarification Pre-heating (35-40 0 C) Standardization Fat:SNF =1:1.65 Heating(90 0 C/No hold) Cooling(70 0 C) Coagulation/Acidification(organic acids 2-5%@70 0 C Draining Hooping Pressing 230 Kg/m 2 Cutting Immersion in chilled water Packaging Storage

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