Published on December 31, 2007
Unit III – A Modern Nation: Unit III – A Modern Nation Chapter 12 – The New Deal Section 1 – Launching the New Deal Launching the New Deal: Launching the New Deal The Main Idea In 1933 Franklin Delano Roosevelt became president of a suffering nation. He quickly sought to address the country’s needs, with mixed results. Reading Focus What were the key events of the presidential election of 1932? What was the nature of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt’s political partnership? What initial actions did Roosevelt take to stabilize the economy? How did the new deal run into trouble in Roosevelt’s first term? The Election of 1932: The Election of 1932 Americans blamed President Hoover for the country’s economic woes. Franklin Delano Roosevelt won the Democratic Party’s nomination. He was related to Theodore Roosevelt. He survived polio. He was governor of New York. Roosevelt promised relief for the poor and more public works programs to provide jobs. He attacked Hoover and the Republicans for their response to the Great Depression. Roosevelt won a landslide victory—winning more than 57 percent of the popular vote. The Election of 1932: The Election of 1932 What were the key events of the presidential election of 1932? Recall- What government jobs did Roosevelt hold before running for president? Explain- How did Roosevelt plan to turn the economy around? Evaluate- Do you think as a presidential candidate, Roosevelt should have clearly described his plans to end the Depression? Introduction of FDR's Democratic Family (00:42) : Introduction of FDR's Democratic Family (00:42) The Roosevelts: The Roosevelts Franklin Delano Roosevelt had a winning personality and believed that it was the government’s job to take direct action to help its people. Eleanor Roosevelt was a powerful political force in her own right, and she helped to change to role of the First Lady. Franklin and Eleanor’s marriage played a central role in Franklin Roosevelt’s political success. A Political Partnership: A Political Partnership Franklin Roosevelt Appealing blend of cheerfulness, optimism, and confidence An effective communicator (ex. fireside chats) A reform-minded Democrat Believed the government could solve economic and social problems Eleanor Roosevelt “Eyes and ears” of her husband Directed efforts to solve several major social issues (ex. lynching of African Americans) Wrote her own newspaper column Had the trust and affection of many Americans A Political Partnership: A Political Partnership What was the nature of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt’s political partnership? Explain- How did Roosevelt turn in disability into a strength? Analyze- What is Roosevelt saying about the government’s role in the History’s Voices quote? Develop- How did Eleanor Roosevelt transform the role of the First Lady? The New Deal (08:08): The New Deal (08:08) Franklin Roosevelt as President: Banking Crisis Temporarily closed all the nation’s banks to stop panic and large-scale withdrawals Passed the Emergency Banking Act Glass-Steagall Act created the FDIC Hundred Days Critical period of government activity Roosevelt pushed Congress to put most of his New Deal into practice. The New Deal promised relief, recovery and reforms. Franklin Roosevelt as President Beyond the Hundred Days FDR and Congress passed important legislation after the Hundred Days Created the Civil Works Administration Passed the Indian Reorganization Act The Only Thing We Have to Fear Is Fear Itself (00:14) : The Only Thing We Have to Fear Is Fear Itself (00:14) This Bank Closed Until Further Notice (00:30) : This Bank Closed Until Further Notice (00:30) President Roosevelt Creates Great Depression Government Relief Programs (02:51) : President Roosevelt Creates Great Depression Government Relief Programs (02:51) The New Deal: The New Deal Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Helped unemployed young men 18 to 25 years old Agriculture Adjustment Act (AAA) Helped farmers by paying them not to grow crops National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) Helped business by requiring that businesses in the same industry cooperate with each other to set prices and output Started Public Works Administration (PWA) Labor received federal protection for the right to organize. Federal Securities Act Helped investors, restored confidence in the markets Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Helped build dams and other projects along the Tennessee River and its tributaries FDR Visits Virginia (00:49): FDR Visits Virginia (00:49) Roosevelt Takes Action: Roosevelt Takes Action What initial actions did Roosevelt take to stabilize the economy? Recall- What happened during the four months between the presidential election and Roosevelt’s Inauguration? Summarize- What major action did Roosevelt take on his second day after inauguration as President, and why did he do it? Describe- What was the goal of the Tennessee Valley Authority? Roosevelt Takes Action: Roosevelt Takes Action Analyze- How did the public benefit from the Federal Securities Act? Predict- How do you think the NIRA will affect interaction between labor unions and business? Trouble for the New Deal: Radical Reactions to the New Deal Conservative Reactions to the New Deal Believed the New Deal did not go far enough in reforming the economy Wanted a complete overhaul of capitalism Huey P. Long, Father Charles Coughlin, Dr. Francis Townsend Attacked the New Deal as a radical break with traditional American ideals Thought the New Deal would drive the country to destruction. American Liberty League Trouble for the New Deal Leading Critics of the New Deal: Leading Critics of the New Deal Huey P. Long (senator from Louisiana) Believed Roosevelt’s policies were too friendly to banks and businessmen (started the Share Our Wealth Society) Father Charles Coughlin (the “radio priest”) Believed Roosevelt was not doing enough to curb the power of bankers and financial leaders Dr. Francis Townsend Criticized the New Deal for not doing enough for older Americans (wanted pensions for people over 60) The American Liberty League Believed that the New Deal went too far and was anti-business Opposition from the courts Critics of the New Deal feared that it gave the president too much power over other branches of government. Schechter Poultry Corporation v. United States United States v. Butler Trouble for the New Deal: Trouble for the New Deal How did the New Deal run into trouble in Roosevelt’s first term? Recall- What did Huey P. Long’s Share Our Wealth Society want to do? Analyze- Why did the American Liberty League appeal to both Democrats and Republicans? Evaluate- Do you think the New Deal went too far or not far enough?