Published on January 10, 2008
Comparative LCA of Flooring materials: Ceramic vs. Marble Tiles: Comparative LCA of Flooring materials: Ceramic vs. Marble Tiles Mari Nissinen Background: Background Italy is the most important producer of ceramic and marble tiles for buildings Italy covers 23% of the world output of ceramic tiles 18% of the world output of marble tiles Growing interest in environmental concerns in the building sector The Goal and Scope (1/2): The Goal and Scope (1/2) To compare environmental profiles of the ceramic and marble tile which one has the best environmental profile? What are the hot-spots of the systems? Single-fired ceramic vs. marble tile Functional unit: 1m2 and period: 40 years Few operations have been excluded The Goal and Scope (2/2): The Goal and Scope (2/2) No allocation procedure was done Impact assessment methodology is problem-oriented Impact categories: abiotic resources, global warming,ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, aquatic toxicity, acidification, nutrification and photochemical oxidant creation Normalisation factors by Directoraat-Generaal Rijkswaterstaat Weighting factors by NOGEPA Assumptions: Assumptions Emissions of the electric energy production are relative to the Italian energy system The distance of the transport of the packaging materials is 10km from the collection point to the municipal solid waste incinerator The distance of the tilling demolition to the landfill is 20km Ceramic Tile: Ceramic Tile Average weight: 18kg/m2 Manufacturing in North Italy The main countries from which raw material are imported, are identified using the Italian Trade Statistics Flue gas amounts are averages of different plants Manufacturing waste is recycled into the system Average life of the tiles: 20 years Marble Tile: Marble Tile Average weight 48,6kg/m2, thickness 1,8cm Manufactured in the centre of Italy Manufacturing waste is recycled out of the system after the required treatments Distance from the sedimentation tank to the landfill for sludge is 10km Filter-press solid waste (marmettola) disposal in landfill, distance 10km Average life 40 years Ceramic tile inventory analysis (1/6): Ceramic tile inventory analysis (1/6) Two stages of productive cycle: 1) Body & glaze manufacturing and 2) Laying of the glaze to the body and the firing of the glazed body The process starts with the wet grinding of raw materials, after the forming it is dried in kilns 1,15-1,2t raw materials is needed to obtain 1t of finished product Ceramic tile inventory analysis (2/6): Ceramic tile inventory analysis (2/6) Raw materials: Argillaceous materials (45%) Degreasing materials (15%) Soldering materials (40%: feldspars (25%) and limestone (15%)) Recovered materials Ceramic tile inventory analysis (3/6): Ceramic tile inventory analysis (3/6) Mix preparation consists of grinding, mixing-soaking and regulation of the water content The main emissions in to the atmosphere are related to the movement and grinding of raw materials (dust & burning of natural gas) Aim of forming is to mould the tile in the spesific ”green” format. Pressing process is used in forming The water content of a dried tile is <1% Ceramic tile inventory analysis (4/6): Ceramic tile inventory analysis (4/6) Glazes can be transparent, opaque or coloured 1kg/m2 of glaze is required for the enamelling Fuel for firing kilns is methane Water required is 12 l/m2 Packaging: cardboard boxes with polythene sheets No emissions during the use phase Disposal: landfill Ceramic tile inventory analysis (5/6): Ceramic tile inventory analysis (5/6) Ceramic tile inventory analysis (6/6): Ceramic tile inventory analysis (6/6) Marble tile inventory analysis (1/2): Marble tile inventory analysis (1/2) Productive cycle consists of Quarry operations Raw blocks cutting Cutting of the standard size blocks Polishing, buffing Packaging: wooden boxes Disposal: landfill Marble tile inventory analysis (2/2): Marble tile inventory analysis (2/2) Impact Assessment (1/8): Impact Assessment (1/8) Electric and thermal energy needed to manufacture of 1m2 ceramic tile is 161,67MJ Marble tile 161,83MJ Ceramic tile process requires lots of thermal energy and marble electric energy Most important categories in eco-indicators are global warming, human toxicity and acidification Impact Assessment (2/8): Impact Assessment (2/8) Impact Assessment (3/8): Impact Assessment (3/8) Impact Assessment (4/8): Impact Assessment (4/8) Impact Assessment (5/8): Impact Assessment (5/8) Impact Assessment (6/8): Impact Assessment (6/8) Impact Assessment (7/8): Impact Assessment (7/8) Impact Assessment (8/8): Impact Assessment (8/8) Results: Results Marble tile (1,90e-12) scores about two times better than ceramic tile (4,21e-12) Emissions to air for both over 90% of emissions The highest environmental burden for marble tile system is preproduction For ceramic system: preparation of the body, fusion of the frit and the firing of the glazed body Marble tile process requires much electric energy, ceramic process thermal energy Improvements suggested be done: more efficient technology for marble energy costs ↓ Ceramic: thermal energy ↓ THANK YOU!!: THANK YOU!!