Published on February 11, 2008
Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation Systems Selection and Documentation ARCH 3311 Fall 2006 Martin David Lex Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation Table Of Contents: Wood Construction 1. Willows at Chastain 2. House at Ebenezer Steel Construction 3. Noonday Baptist Concrete Construction 4. Canton Retail 5. Roswell Baptist Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation The Willows At Chastain Location: 4870 Canton Rd. This site was interesting because it is squeezed between a medium sized shopping center and a daycare. The only good view are to the road and through the back of the site. They are building ranch style homes next to each other connected at the garage. They are wood construction with brick and siding for the exterior finish. The roof was covered with standard asphalt shingles. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation This is the site for the ranch condo that will be observed. The site is backed by a shopping center so they have mounded up dirt about 6 feet high to create a barrier. The first observation is the green pipe and other various drain pipes sticking up out of the ground. The pipes designate where supply and drain pipes will exist. They need to be there first so the slab can be poured around the pipes. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation The footing has been poured with rebar extended out to attach the walls of the house to the ground. Forms have also been built in order to mark where the slab ends when they pour the concrete. This footer runs through the middle of the perimeter to support a load bearing wall that will later divide the connected condos. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation This picture shows how the walls are held down to the slab. The metal strap is imbedded in the concrete then nailed to the exterior walls to lock them into place. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation The green color is where a spray on moisture treatment has been applied. It keeps the bottom plate from being susceptible to rotting and warping due to water. This detail is of the bottom rail of a truss. The metal plates are used to connect joints of the several different pieces of wood used in constructing a truss. These types of trusses are built at a wood yard then shipped to the job site. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation The metal guide in the picture is for a pocket door. Note the metal C shapes that have wood in them for attaching sheet rock to the outside of the pocket door frame. The door opening is on the left and the door slides to the right between the thin vertical metal C shapes. There is also a metal brace at the bottom of the metal C shapes to insure a consistent outside measurement of the wall. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation Two rafters intersecting at a truss shows how one of many types of manufactured brackets can be used. This bracket is very important because it holds the truss down to the top plates of the wall with five nails top and bottom Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation This profile shows the relationship of the soffit board to the fascia and the exterior crown molding, as well as the truss which is heavily nailed into by all of those pieces. Vents are usually incorporated into the soffit to let air flow through the attic. Vents are necessary because drastic temperature changes from inside to outside could cause the attic sweat (produce moisture). Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation Even the small hard to reach places where the roof hits the house has to be protected with flashing. These pictures show flashing can go on with the siding or the shingles, but is always the first thing to get attached. Flashing is layered like shingles in a staggered pattern to keep any water from going behind the siding. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation Brick ties are nailed onto the house then bent so they end up in a grout joint in order to hold the brick on the house. At the bottom of the brick a moisture barrier which acts also as flashing helps drain any water collected behind the brick. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation Noonday Baptist Church Location: 3660 Canton Rd. The site housed a brand new church built by the old church which sits across the street. The church is double the size of the previous church and made out of steel instead of brick. The construction of the new church is steel construction with a brick veneer. The interior is framed with light gauge steel. Something interesting about the church is that they are going to have the main entrance on the back side of the church which is away from the street. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation Before concrete and form work can be done trenches have to be dug to lay pipes down that have electrical wires as well as water supply and drain pipes. After the form work is done plastic is laid down with a metal mesh above to help strengthen the concrete. Note the triangular shape in the form work where a post will later be anchored Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation The picture above gives a good proportion scale as to how big the anchor bolts for the columns are. This set of picture also shows an anchored column and a finished column. The finished column shows some cracks at the corners of the square which Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation A composite floor like the on e in the picture above is composed of a corrugated metal decking with ridges in the sides of the corrugation. The decking supports the concrete when it is poured and the ridges help bond the concrete after it has hardened. There also a metal wire mesh incorporated for added strength. In the picture on the left there are a row of metal studs, they are used to further bond the slab to the frame of the building and keep it from shifting. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation Most of the steel connections at the site were bolted which is expected because field welding is generally expensive and not always as accurate as shop welds. The picture on the left has a field weld where the rectangular plate was welded to the triangular plate. The picture on the right derails a connection to a column with two different L shapes bolted to a metal rafter. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation Here are some huge light gauge steel trusses assembled on site then raised into position and attached to the beams. The next step on the roof would be to place a layer of corrugated steel. The material seen on the site was a perforated corrugated steel that was used instead of a solid piece of corrugated steel. On the right is a display of solid steel corrugated decking on top of a wire frame joist. The bridging that connects all of the joists is seen as a solid steel bar that is welded at each joist. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation After all of the decking and concrete is down it then time for the plumbing to be installed. Holes are drilled through the concrete and lets pipes go through the floors. The pipes are suspended by straps attached to the wire frame joists. In the second picture there are multiple white pipes extending out of the concrete foreshadowing that this will be a bathroom. The black pipe made of a thick gauge steel is generally for water supply and white PVC pipes generally denote a drain pipe. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation Pipes that run along the ceiling have to be supported by straps attached to a threaded bar. The bar is threaded for adjustability up or down to get the proper slope so that the water can drain. The small metal clamps are attached to the horizontal flange of either wide flange beams or wire frame joists. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation These picture the functions and connections of the light gauge steel that goes in after the heavy gauge steel beams and columns. The picture to the right explains how interior framed opening need to be spaced for sheetrock. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation This profile of the exterior wall shows the layers of the wall starting with a wood frame inside of a metal frame. The wood serves as a place to attach the door jambs and the finishing trim. The next layer is the exterior grade insulation board then wrapped with an exterior moisture barrier. Next is the wall of brick which incorporates a row lock sill and weep holes to drain water from behind the wall. On the ground all the way around the building, they placed a black plastic with an egg carton shape covered with felt. That is put there to keep water from pooling under the ground around the building. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation On the roof multiple layers of materials were used. The first layer was perforated and corrugated steel which was then filled with rigid insulation. The next layer was ¾ inch thick exterior sheathing with another layer of rigid insulation above. On top of that was a layer of ply wood and then felt paper. At the roof soffits a piece of ply wood is attached to the outside of the vertical steel with the fascia board attached to the outside of that. The roof layers butt into the back of the fascia to create an edge for the roofing to hang over and drain water into the gutter. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation This is a good example of structural steel that will later be painted and exposed as a decorative feature. This just goes to dhow that not all of the rough steel has to be covered up. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation Roswell Street Baptist Church and Multi Purpose Use Building Location: Roswell St. and Victory Dr. Architects: JEA Architects Builder: Batson- Cook Construction Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation When constructing the foundation walls rebar becomes a structural element in itself that is because it has to be tied together with metal ties to keep its form. Rebar is shaped so that the concrete can be formed around it. This rebar comes out of the footing and will be extended by other pieces of rebar to create a strong anchor for the wall above. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation The picture to the left shows slightly wider CMU block for the load bearing walls. After the blocks are set they are filled with mortar. The rebar that protrudes up is covered with a plastic end cap to prevent injuries to the workers. Higher up the wall metal stays are used to help keep the rebar centered through the CMU block holes. They do not get removed and will just end up in the grout joint so they will never be seen. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation When CMU block walls reach great heights, supports need to be employed to insure the result is a plumb wall. To keep the bottom of the supports from moving they are bolted down to concrete which was previously pored for this function. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation This picture shows what the facade is starting to look like with square port holes in the first wall. Again supports are used for the very high CMU block wall. This explains the layers of the exterior in which the CMU block is first then a spray on vapor barrier is applied. Next the brick is laid with a 1 inch air space behind. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation When lintels are not used for openings in the block wall supports must be used. The support has to be rigid and sufficient enough to hold the block that is stacked above it so sagging cannot occur. This shows some of the rather extensive supports used in an opening. It is extensive because this opening is almost on the ground and the wall above is very tall. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation Before the slab is poured a rebar mesh is constructed to significantly strengthen the concrete. Also note how the door jamb does not go all the way down the wall that is because it set for a certain thickness of build up for the floor. Wires are run from room to room by this method of deleting one of the blocks in a door way. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation Before the rebar mesh can go down the floor has to be covered with crushed gravel to create a good solid and compacted bed for the concrete. After the gravel is laid down then the rebar mesh can go down and to make sure it gets in the concrete, spacers are used to keep it off the ground. Learning By Observation: Learning By Observation Before the brick is built up it has to be supported by something and in this case it is a CMU block layer. The second picture shows sometimes exterior insulation is used behind the brick. This insulation may also have some moisture repellant qualities. In the third picture lintels were used for the brick across the top of the door way.