Published on April 28, 2008
Overview of Water Reuse Technology: Pricing Considerations Related To Reclaimed Water : Overview of Water Reuse Technology: Pricing Considerations Related To Reclaimed Water Mark W. LeChevallier, Ph.D. Director, Innovation & Environmental Stewardship Slide2: American Water is the largest water and wastewater services provider in North America, headquartered in Voorhees, NJ. American Water serves over 16.2 million people in 32 states and Canada, and employs nearly 7,000 water professionals. American Water owns or operates over 870 water treatment plants & wells and 270 wastewater facilities. The company conducts over one million water quality tests each year for over 100 regulated parameters, and up to 50 types of water-related tests each day. www.amwater.com American Water reuses nearly 2 billion gallons per year Reuse of Treated Wastewater: Reuse of Treated Wastewater Water reuse in the U.S. is a large and growing practice Nationally, an estimated 1.7 billion gallons per day is reused. Reclaimed water use on a volume basis is growing an estimated 15% per year. In 2002, Florida reclaimed 584 mgd. California ranked a close second with 525 mgd used every day. Florida has an official goal of reclaiming 1 billion gallon per day by the year 2010. Texas, Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, Georgia, Washington Types of Reuse: Types of Reuse Urban Reuse Irrigation of parks, highway medians, golf courses, etc. Commercial uses such as vehicle washing, window washing, etc. Fire protection Dust control and concrete production Toilet and urinal flushing Groundwater recharge Augmentation of potable supplies Industrial Reuse Cooling water Boiler make-up water Industrial process water Agricultural reuse Environmental and recreational To create, restore, and/or enhance wetlands Recreational and aesthetic impoundments Reclaimed wastewater is an increasingly important source of supply Current Regulations & Guidelines: Current Regulations & Guidelines Currently there are no federal regulations directly governing water reuse practices. 25 states have regulations regarding the use of reclaimed water 16 states have guidelines or design standards 9 states have no regulations Example: Membrane Bioreactors: Example: Membrane Bioreactors American Water operates nearly 30 membrane bioreactors (MBRs), to treat wastewater and provide the potential for water reuse. MBR Advantages: - Increased Reliability - High Quality Effluent - Free of Suspended Solids - Increased Pathogen Removal - Easily Automated - Reduced sludge - Reduced Footprint American Water has experience with different membrane configurations (flat sheet and immersed membranes) and cost models. Solaire, Battery Park Wrentham Mall Antham New Jersey Foxboro Solaire in Building Recycling Battery Park City, NY : Solaire in Building Recycling Battery Park City, NY 293 Unit Building 25,000 GPD Reclaimed Water Treatment Plant Located in the Basement of a Luxury Apartment Building Gold LEED Certified MBR Technology: MBR Technology Beneficial Reuse: Solaire: Beneficial Reuse: Solaire Treated Effluent Storage Tanks in Basement Equipment Room Recycles up to 25,000 GPD: 9,000 GPD toilet flush water 11,500 GPD cooling tower make-up 6,000 GPD landscape irrigation Advanced membrane bioreactor system: 35% less overall energy consumption 65% less energy at peak demand 50% less potable water used than other high- rise buildings of same size Rainwater collection system irrigates 10,000 square feet of rooftop gardens Slide10: Capital Cost Range $50/GPD at 10,000 GPD $15/GPD at 500,000 GPD (Based on current experience - specific site conditions would dictate actual costs) Operating Cost Range $0.013/Gallon at 25,000 GPD $0.009/Gallon at 400,000 GPD NYC = $0.007/Gallon W + WW Cost Estimates From Solaire Wrentham Village Outlet Mall: Wrentham Village Outlet Mall Municipal sewer was unavailable. On-site facility required to treat to same levels as municipal plant would. Construction schedule was critical to project success. Toilet flushing and groundwater recharge Original system designed for 375,000 sq. ft. of retail outlet stores. Two subsequent reuse plant upgrades of $500,000 and $1.3 MM; serving nearly 700,000 sq ft of commercial space. Wrentham Village Outlet Mall: Wrentham Village Outlet Mall Direct reuse advantages at Wrentham, MA: Capital cost savings: smaller effluent disposal fields needed Operating cost savings by reducing potable water consumption Public relations improved Conserved water resources The Challenge :: The Challenge : Where could the Town of Foxboro, MA find a reliable source of 250,000 gallons per day of water to meet the game-day demands of a modern National Football League stadium? If water was available, how could the Town treat and dispose of the 250,000 gallons per day of wastewater that was generated? What would be the potential environmental impacts of instantaneously withdrawing 250,000 gallons per game-day? Gillette Stadium Project Profile: Gillette Stadium Project Profile 250,000 GPD, membrane bio-reactor wastewater treatment plant – expandable to 1.1 MGD. 680,000 gallon equalization tank. 3,500 GPM submersible lift station. 2.4 acre leach field – on site wastewater discharge and recharges local aquifer. Reclaimed water is utilized for stadium toilet flushing. $5.2 million capital project; AWM has 20 year operating contract. Added commercial development made possible via expandability of recycling capabilities Anthem Arizona: Anthem Arizona Initial Service Date: 1999 Design Capacity: 7 million GPD (water) 3 million GPD (wastewater) Population Served: 13,000 Treatment: Prescreening MBR Anoxic Aerobic ZenoGem membranes UV disinfection Chlorine residual City of Fillmore, California: City of Fillmore, California 2006 DBO for new 1.8 MGD, $40 million, wastewater treatment plant Stringent Performance Criteria Wastewater reuse for irrigation and groundwater recharge Energy Conservation Issues Self Generation Incentives Lifecycle Cost Comparison: Lifecycle Cost Comparison Other cost drivers include sludge handling and reactor sizing Orange County Groundwater Replenishment System : Orange County Groundwater Replenishment System Treats 70 MGD wastewater to a vey high level using microfiltration, reverse osmosis membranes and ultraviolet and hydrogen peroxide oxidation Replenish the groundwater basin, to protect from seawater intrusion, and for industrial uses Reduces the amount of wastewater released into the ocean and delays the need for another ocean outfall Decreases reliance on imported water from northern California and the Colorado River Helps drought-proof the county Helps reduce mineral build up in the groundwater. Total program cost of $480.8 million http://www.gwrsystem.com Sewer Mining vs. Conventional Reuse Planning: Sewer Mining vs. Conventional Reuse Planning Reduced Pumping + Tailored Treatment = Enhanced Sustainability Sewer Mining: Immediate Benefits: Sewer Mining: Immediate Benefits Enhances collection system capacity Increases water supply reliability Minimizes infrastructure requirements Reclaimed water distribution requirements kept at a minimum Saves on pumping costs of reuse water Extends capacity of the collection system Waste Activated Sludge to collection system Improves odor control In-pipe treatment Provides planning, operating and capital investment flexibility Conclusions: Conclusions Wastewater reuse is an increasingly important element of the water cycle. Drivers for reuse include lack of alternative water supplies, groundwater replenishment, barrier to saltwater intrusion, pollution management Lack of federal regulations and varied applications makes defining reuse difficult MBR technology perfect for reuse: compact, effective, automated Pricing of reuse water is difficult – need to account for all the environmental benefits and the cost of the alternative supplies. Solaire, Battery Park Wrentham Mall Antham New Jersey Foxboro Slide22: Contact Information Mark W. LeChevallier, Ph.D. Director, Innovation & Environmental Stewardship American Water 1025 Laurel Oak Road Voorhees, NJ 08043 USA phone: (856) 346-8261 fax: (856) 782-3603 e-mail: [email protected] Acknowledgements Support was provided by the utility subsidiaries of American Water. Thank you for your attention!