Lecture24 07

Information about Lecture24 07

Published on October 9, 2007

Author: Nikita

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  Microbial Biology BIOL 3370 Lecture 24: Review on Wednesday. Exam II on Friday. Spring break!! Monday March 12, 2007 Central Dogma:  Central Dogma Figure 7.1 Biology: Slide3:  Respiratory chains… Fig. 5.20 Fig. 5.21 Slide4:  Other methods of CO2 fixation: Reverse TCA…in the green sulfur bacteria Chlorobium tepidum Fig. 17.24 Slide5:  C. tepidum is a green sulfur bacterium that generally grows in a dense mat over hot springs. They are also found in anoxic and sulfide-rich waters, mud, and sediments. They grow best at temperatures between 40 and 50 degrees Celsius and at a pH between 6.0 and 4.5. Slide7:  Green non-sulfur bacteria Chloroflexus aurantiacus Roseiflexis species, no bchl c Slide8:  Fig. 17.24 Other methods of CO2 fixation: Chloroflexus aurantiacus Slide9:  Fig. 17.66 Glyoxylate cycle Slide10:  PHOTOSYNTHESIS Slide11:  Fig. 17.2 Slide12:  Anoxygenic photosynthesis: Purple sulfur bacteria --Bchl a and b, H2S as e- donor, sulfur granules inside cell Purple non-sulfur bacteria --as the purple but typically use organic fatty acids as e- donor Green non-sulfur bacteria --Bchl c, Na2S2O3 or H2 as e- donor, chlorosomes Heliobacteria --Bchl g, no Bchl c, no chlorosomes, non-sulfur Green sulfur bacteria --Bchl c, d, and e, chlorosomes, H2S as e- donor, sulfur granules outside of cell Slide13:  All green sulfur bacteria studied to date are obligate anoxygenic photolithotrophs which can typically utilize hydrogen, sulfide, elemental sulfur or polysulfide, and sometimes thiosulfate as electron donors for carbon dioxide fixation by the reverse TCA cycle. http://genome.jgi-psf.org/finished_microbes/chlag/chlag.home.html http://genome.jgi-psf.org/finished_microbes/rhosp/rhosp.home.html It is the subject of intensive investigations worldwide on the structure, function and regulation of its photosynthetic membranes, its mechanisms of CO2 fixation, nitrogen fixation, cytochrome diversity and electron transport systems. Purple non-sulfur bacteria Slide14:  Purple bacterium: Rhodobacter capsulatus Vesicular photosynthetic membranes Fig. 17.12 Slide15:  Lamellar membrane structure in a halophilic purple bacterium… Fig. 17.12 These membranes are stacked much like those of the thylakoid membranes found in cyanobacteria Slide16:  Recall that cytochromes also contain a porphyrin Fig. 17.4 Slide17:  blue red Fig. 17.3 Slide18:  Not all chlorophyll is part of the reaction center (RC). Most is used in light harvesting and “simply” passes light derived energy into the reaction center. There is a “special pair” of chlorophyll molecules at the reaction center… Fig. 17.6 Slide19:  Photosynthetic yield… Slide20:  Accessory pigments: --increase spectrum of “useful” light --play a role in “photoprotection” at high light intensities b-carotene Fig. 17.8 Slide21:  Fig. 17.9 Slide22:  phycocyanin This and other phycobilins are covalently attached to protein creating phycobiliproteins. These proteins exist in huge light-harvesting structures called phycobilisomes Cyanobacteria Slide23:  Electron “flow” in a purple bacterium Fig. 17.14 Slide24:  Fig. 17.15 Cyclic photophosphorylation Slide26:  Fig. 17.18 Slide27:  Ferridoxin as reductant… Fig. 17.24 Slide28:  Oxygenic photosynthesis: Cyanobacteria Chl a and b Chl a Slide29:  Phycobilisomes: Slide30:  Fig. 17.24 Slide31:  Electron-transfer pathway in the transient complex formed between cytochrome f and plastocyanin (2PCF). Tyrosine 1 and histidine 87, which are both metal ligands of the heme and copper proteins, respectively, are accommodated in front of each other at the protein-protein interface to allow the electrons go from the iron atom to the copper atom. Slide32:  Photosystem I. The redox components of the reaction center are in panel A, as well as in panel B upon ca. 90 rotation. The 3D structure of the monomeric PSI is in panel C, where each subunit is in different color and -helices are represented by cylinders… Slide33:  Pigments in the LHC-II trimer and monomer… Slide34:  Laminated cyanobacterial mat communities of alkaline siliceous hot springs in the Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, viewed at different scales. (A) Landscape showing green-orange mat at far edge of Octopus Spring and down effluent channel. (B) Cross section of ca. 50 to 55°C Octopus Spring cyanobacterial mat sample magnified at ca. ×1.8. (C) Phase-contrast microscopy image of homogenized 1-mm-thick upper green Octopus Spring mat layer showing the predominant cyanobacteria, sausage-shaped S. lividus, embedded in a matrix of filaments, at least some of which are probably green nonsulfur bacteria such as C. aurantiacus (D) Autofluorescence microscopy image of a vertical cryotome section through the upper 1-mm green layer of the 61°C Mushroom Spring mat showing banding of S. lividus populations at different depths). Slide35:  Stromatolites from Shark’s Bay Slide36:  http://www.uta.edu/paleomap/homepage/Schieberweb/Picture%20Pages/shphoto2.htm#Picture%20Page http://www.uta.edu/paleomap/homepage/Schieberweb/microbial_mat_page.htm http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ogunseitan/studentres/Chapter6_MicrobialMatgallery.swf http://user.uni-frankfurt.de/~schauder/mats/microbial_mats.html Cool mat stuff…

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