Lecture4metabolism

Information about Lecture4metabolism

Published on January 23, 2008

Author: Sigfrid

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Lecture 4 BIOL L100 Indiana University Southeast David Partin, Instructor:  Lecture 4 BIOL L100 Indiana University Southeast David Partin, Instructor Today’s Plan…:  Today’s Plan… Lecture 4: Metabolism, Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration (Ch6-8) Video Clip One-Minute Paper Lab Chapters 6, 7 & 8:  Chapters 6, 7 & 8 Metabolism Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Metabolism:  Metabolism What is metabolism? The sum of all chemical reactions occurring in the body. Why do we need all those chemical reactions? There are lots of jobs that must be done to keep us alive! Breathing, digestion, movement, thinking, immunity, growth, etc. All those reactions require energy. Where do we get the energy from? Living things depend on the Sun!:  Living things depend on the Sun! (stored in glucose) (wasted energy) (wasted) (wasted) (Used for Movement) 2 Laws of Thermodynamics:  2 Laws of Thermodynamics 1st Law: Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can change from one form to another. Solar, chemical, mechanical, heat energy, etc. 2nd Law: When energy changes forms, some of the energy is wasted or lost as… HEAT! Living things depend on the Sun!:  Living things depend on the Sun! (stored in glucose) (wasted energy) (wasted) (wasted) (Used for Movement) Photosynthesis:  Photosynthesis Solar energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 (carbon (water) (glucose) (oxygen) dioxide) Reactants: solar energy, carbon dioxide and water CO2 and H2O diffuse into the plant cell. Products: glucose and oxygen Photosynthesis transforms solar energy into the chemical energy of a carbohydrate. The photosynthetic process takes place with organelles called chloroplasts. Photosynthesis: 2 sets of reactions:  Photosynthesis: 2 sets of reactions Light reactions Solar energy Chemical energy (ATP, NADPH) Calvin Cycle reactions (aka Dark reactions) Chemical energy Chemical energy (ATP, NADPH) (carbohydrate) Solar energy can be converted to chemical energy. This chemical energy can be stored in the covalent bonds that hold together the atoms in a molecule of glucose. Chemical energy can be converted to mechanical energy. See Spot run!  :  Solar energy can be converted to chemical energy. This chemical energy can be stored in the covalent bonds that hold together the atoms in a molecule of glucose. Chemical energy can be converted to mechanical energy. See Spot run!  Spot the Dog Chemical energy is stored in each of these covalent bonds. Slide13:  Before an organism can use the chemical energy in glucose, the energy must be stored in ATP. ATP is the “currency” of cellular energy. ATP directly supplies the energy necessary for nearly all chemical reactions in the body. ATP:  ATP Adenosine Triphosphate nucleotide Very high energy bonds between phosphate groups (like charges repel) ATP:  ATP Chemical energy is stored in the high energy bonds that hold the phosphate groups together in the ATP molecule. When ATP is broken down, a phosphate group is released along with free energy that can be used for metabolism. Functions of ATP:  Functions of ATP Chemical work: ATP supplies the energy needed to build organic molecules in the cell. Transport work: ATP supplies the energy to pump substances across the cell membrane. Mechanical work: ATP provides energy for movement. (muscle contraction, flagella, chromosome movement during mitosis, etc.) Slide18:  Exergonic = releases energy So how & where is ATP formed?:  So how & where is ATP formed? Outside the mitochondria…:  Outside the mitochondria… Glycolysis: (glyco = sugar; lysis= breakdown) Glucose (6 carbons) is converted to pyruvate (3 carbons) P.S. Don’t memorize this diagram! Inside the mitochondria…:  Inside the mitochondria… Krebs cycle (aka Citric Acid cycle or TCA cycle) Big Picture: Organic molecules from glycolysis enter the mitochondria. These molecules are processed in the Krebs cycle. The products of the Krebs cycle are: Carbon Dioxide (waste product) ATP (used for energy) etc. Don’t memorize this diagram! Cellular Respiration:  Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the process of breaking down glucose to produce carbon dioxide , water and ATP. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen and produces 32 ATP molecules per glucose. Fermentation (AKA anaerobic respiration):  Fermentation (AKA anaerobic respiration) Anaerobic respiration (aka fermentation) does not require oxygen. It is a less efficient process than aerobic respiration, producing only 2 net ATP. The products of fermentation include either lactate or alcohol. When our muscles need more oxygen than they are supplied, cellular respiration becomes anaerobic. Lactic acid is released as a waste product. What happens to the products of the Krebs cycle?:  What happens to the products of the Krebs cycle? ATP is used as an energy source. Carbon dioxide exits the cell by diffusion. Eventually, it will diffuse into the bloodstream. After that, CO2 will diffuse from the bloodstream into the alveoli of the lungs. Then, it is released into the atmosphere by exhalation. Plants will absorb the carbon dioxide to use in the photosynthetic process all over again. Big Picture:  Big Picture Organisms require energy for metabolism. That energy ultimately comes from the sun’s energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose, produced by photosynthesis. Mitochondria within cells have the machinery necessary to turn that glucose into ATP that the cell can use for energy. Living things depend on the Sun!:  Living things depend on the Sun! (stored in glucose) (wasted energy) (wasted) (wasted) (Used for Movement) Any questions?:  Any questions? What’s next? Break! “One Minute Paper” Lab Photosynthesis Lab Overview:  Photosynthesis Lab Overview Plants in test tubes, covered with soda solution Rubber stopper & bent pipette plug Beaker of water between test tubes & light Watch soda solution change levels with and without light Preparation for next lecture::  Preparation for next lecture: Read Chapter 9

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