Lesson 3 Managing Animals To Avoid Negative Impact

Information about Lesson 3 Managing Animals To Avoid Negative Impact

Published on November 19, 2007

Author: Olivia

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Managing Animals to Avoid Negative Impacts:  Managing Animals to Avoid Negative Impacts Developed by: Holly George, University of California Cooperative Extension Susan Kocher, University of California Cooperative Extension Bruce Miller, Utah State University Melody Hefner, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension With Contributions From: Cinda Williams, University of Idaho UNCE, Reno, NV We’ll be covering::  We’ll be covering: What negative impacts can animals have on land and wildlife? How can these impacts be avoided or minimized? What are some strategies for dealing with wildlife? What impacts can animals cause?:  UNCE, Reno, NV What impacts can animals cause? What parts of animals cause impacts?:  manure What parts of animals cause impacts? hooves A. Miller mouths bodies Impacts from hooves:  Impacts from hooves On pastures Compaction Trails Reduced productivity On stream banks Trampling Erosion Pollution UNCE, Reno, NV Impacts from mouths:  Impacts from mouths Overgrazing plants can weaken their root structure, plants don’t recover Pasture productivity decreases Soil erosion increases www.farmphoto.com UNCE, Reno, NV Impacts from bodies:  Impacts from bodies Objects in the pasture are damaged Trees, posts, irrigation works, fences Weed seeds and pests are transported UCCE UNCE, Reno, NV Impacts from manure:  Impacts from manure Polluted runoff Odor Dust Insects and parasites UNCE, Reno, NV How to avoid impacts?:  How to avoid impacts? Good grazing management avoids hoof and mouth impacts Good facility design avoids animal body impacts www.usda.gov Good manure management:  Good manure management Keeps livestock healthy Returns nutrients to the soil Improves pastures and gardens Protects the environment OSU Extension Service Poor manure management:  Poor manure management Livestock get sick Unsanitary conditions Complaints from neighbors Increased insect and parasite populations Harms environment USU, Logan, UT How much manure do animals produce?:  How much manure do animals produce? Example: How much manure will be produced by two horses in a small stable for three months in the winter. www.usda.gov Horse manure production:  Horse manure production 2 horses, 1000 pounds each WEIGHT: 50 lbs/day x 2 = 100 pounds VOLUME: .81 cubic feet/day WEIGHT: 50 lbs/day x 30 days/month x 3 months = 4500 pounds of manure VOLUME: 0.81 cu ft/day x 30 days/month x 3 months = 73 cubic feet of manure How much manure will your animals produce?:  How much manure will your animals produce? Nutrient value of manures :  Nutrient value of manures Manure can be a resource:  Manure can be a resource Livestock remove nutrients from land while grazing Returning manure to soil promotes soil fertility and plant growth Important nutrients Nitrogen (N) Potassium (K or K2O) Phosphorus (P2O5) www.senecaway.com/compost.htm Can I use all my manure?:  Can I use all my manure? How much will you have? Where can you safely store or compost it? Where can you safely incorporate it in or on your property? whatcom.wsu.edu/ag/compost How much manure is enough? :  How much manure is enough? To provide annual phosphorus needs for a one acre pasture: one 1000-pound cow one 1400-pound horse three market (150-pounds) hogs twelve 100-pound sheep 225 laying hens www.farmphoto.com Effective management depends on:  Effective management depends on Collection Storage Application Removal www.farmphoto.com Manure collects in::  Manure collects in: Pasture Cages Bedded stall or barn Dry lots/confinement areas, paddocks, corrals or other “sacrifice areas” Pasture collection:  Pasture collection Requires the least amount of effort Natural weathering reduces volume up to 60 percent Nutrients are directly recycled May require occasional dragging of pasture to break up and distribute the manure www.farmphoto.com www.farmphoto.com Cage collection:  Cage collection Small animals like rabbits, fur animals and poultry/birds Manure drops through cage and is removed Waste includes bedding material such as straw or wood shavings www.rockingranch.com Bedded stall or barn:  Bedded stall or barn Horses, cattle, swine, and poultry Manure and soiled bedding are removed by manual cleaning www.nationalhorsestalls.com Dry lots, corrals or other confinement areas :  www.farmphoto.com Dry lots, corrals or other confinement areas Manure storage considerations:  Manure storage considerations Distance from streams, ponds, wells Prevailing wind direction Slope of ground Soil type Manure storage - avoiding runoff:  Manure storage - avoiding runoff Install buffer strips Vegetated area between storage and stream Install berms or ditches Prevents water from entering or leaving storage area Composting :  Composting Reduces volume Kills parasites Reduces weed seeds Reduces odor Provides slow release fertilizer Provides soil amendment Composting requirements:  Composting requirements Oxygen Moisture Correct carbon to nitrogen ratio (30:1) Temperature (120-160 F) www.nhq.nrcs.usda.gov What do I do with the manure?:  What do I do with the manure? Apply it to your property Arrange with gardeners, landscapers, or farmers to remove it most interested in composted manure Haul it yourself most expensive Landfilling (bury on your property) not recommended, expensive and potential for runoff increases Tips for safe manure/compost application :  Tips for safe manure/compost application Minimum of 100 feet from water source (if flat ground) Away from natural drainages Incorporate as soon as possible www.nhq.nrcs.usda.gov Tips for safe manure/compost application :  Tips for safe manure/compost application Monitor soil’s nitrogen content to avoid overapplication Complete the composting process to prevent spreading weed seeds Consider seasonal conditions – winter, wet conditions, etc. The bottom line (no pun intended):  The bottom line (no pun intended) Manage manure to maintain healthy animals and healthy land Applying manure to your property increases the nutrient value and organic content of your soil Impacts to and from wildlife:  Impacts to and from wildlife Impacts to and from wildlife:  Impacts to and from wildlife Habitat loss Dependence on artificial feeding Disease www.farmphoto.com NRCS, Bozeman, MT Habitat loss:  Habitat loss Fencing Displaces some animals Subdivides and fragments habitat www.farmpicures.com Artificial feeding:  Artificial feeding Attracts some species to feeding areas Changes species balance Can make some species become more vulnerable to predators www.farmphoto.com Spread of disease:  Spread of disease Domestic to wild Wild to domestic www.montana.edu/wwwcbs www.ars.usda.gov Setting wildlife goals:  Setting wildlife goals What wildlife is common in your area? Do you want to encourage or discourage wildlife? What type of wildlife do you want to encourage? What type of wildlife do you want to discourage? www.farmphoto.com Encouraging wildlife:  www.usda.gov Encouraging wildlife Plant selection should::  Plant selection should: Include foods and shelter plants for the wildlife you want to attract Be diverse, for the most diverse wildlife Be species specific, if that’s the goal Mix sizes, heights and types, evergreens and deciduous Incorporate native species Take into account your landscape’s needs/abilities Water for wildlife:  Water for wildlife All life needs water, including wildlife Wildlife can use natural or artificial sources dlp.cs.berkeley.edu Natural water sources:  Natural water sources Should have: Plants along edges to provide stability Buffer areas of taller plants to provide cover for animals A variety of plants, giving wildlife a variety of habitats birdsofoklahoma.net Artificial ponds or water holes:  Artificial ponds or water holes Should provide: Both shallow and deep areas Rocks along the edges Plants along edges to provide stability Buffer areas of taller plants to provide cover for animals www.farmphoto.com Artificial water sources:  Artificial water sources Troughs, tanks, etc should have ramps to aid small animals and birds that might otherwise drown On demand water sources for livestock should be routinely checked for problems www.farmphoto.com Shelter/nesting habitat:  Shelter/nesting habitat Provides shade, cover for nests, and safety from predators. Examples: Grasses, shrubs for small animals and birds Evergreen trees for year-round protection Snags for certain birds and small animals dlp.cs.berkeley.edu www.farmphoto.com For birds:  For birds Need combination of shrubs, trees, and grasses Leave occasional downed and standing snags for nests and perches dlp.cs.berkeley.edu Avoiding impacts to wildlife requires :  Avoiding impacts to wildlife requires Pasture/Landscape management Appropriate fencing Pet management Livestock management birdsofoklahoma.net Pasture/landscape management to encourage wildlife :  Pasture/landscape management to encourage wildlife Keep wildlife needs in mind Allow access to water Avoid early season mowing and chemical weed control in tall grass Control noxious weeds Keep corridors of habitat Manage fuels to reduce fire hazards Fencing considerations to encourage wildlife:  Fencing considerations to encourage wildlife Type and species of wildlife Continual or seasonal access needs Localized or full access Fencing to discourage wildlife:  Fencing to discourage wildlife Type and species of wildlife Additional purpose(s) of fencing Type of fencing Net wire Electric Electric modification of existing fences Portable electric fences Minimizing wildlife conflicts:  Minimizing wildlife conflicts Limit access to your home Limit access to your yard Reduce the attractiveness of your living areas Reduce the temptations to predators Limit access to your home:  Limit access to your home www.crittercontrol.com Limit access to your yard:  Limit access to your yard www.farmphoto.com www.farmphoto.com Make your property less attractive to wildlife:  Make your property less attractive to wildlife dlp.cs.berkeley.edu Reduce the temptations to predators:  Reduce the temptations to predators UCCE Pet management strategies:  Pet management strategies Remove pet food from wildlife access. Control your pets, especially at night. If you confine your pets outside, make sure the area is safe. UCES Livestock management:  Livestock management Some domestic animals attract predators Lions, coyotes, dogs Raccoons, skunks www.aphis.usda.gov Predator avoidance:  Predator avoidance Move animals Guard animals Destroy pest animals www.lgd.org Move animals:  Move animals Moving animals into a barn or night pen will reduce access by predators UCCE Guard animals:  Guard animals Dogs Llamas Donkeys UNCE, Reno, NV Guard dogs:  Guard dogs Not shepherds or herders - protectors Great Pyrenees, Akbash, Kommodores, Anatolian Shepards, Maremmas Pros Effective - 85% of respondents in a Colorado survey rated dogs’ performance at deterring predators as excellent or good Deters many species of wildlife Cons May be aggressive to people Must be started as very young pups Slide62:  UCCE Llamas:  Llamas PROS 80% of owners rated them as effective or very effective Most effective for coyotes and dogs Need less training Need no special food Live longer than dogs CONS May be afraid of mountain lions (who isn’t!) texnat.tamu.edu/ranchref www.farmphoto.com Donkeys:  Donkeys PROS Least expensive Somewhat effective against dogs and coyotes CONS Not as effective as dogs or llamas 59% of Texas sheep producers rated donkeys good or fair www.donkeybreedsociety.co.uk Destroying pest animals:  Destroying pest animals Some may be destroyed without permit Some require a permit Some may not be destroyed Regulations in local area:  Regulations in local area Dogs Coyotes Foxes Mountain lions Bears Wolves texnat.tamu.edu/ranchref Resources to help:  Resources to help Federal trappers Local agricultural commissioners Local branch of the U.S. Department of Fish and Wildlife Local health department Living with wildlife:  Living with wildlife Determine local wildlife population Determine wildlife goals for your property Complete exclusion Open access Combination Determine available wildlife habitat on your property Modify your property and facilities appropriately to achieve your goals The Farm Game:  The Farm Game Design or redesign your property layout and facilities, especially the portion dedicated to animal uses, to avoid impacts to the land and wildlife. Include: Manure storage areas and schedules Fencing or strategies for avoiding predation or limiting wildlife access Landscaping or features to attract desirable wildlife

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